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The partners own the property of the partnership as tenants in partnership; it is a co-ownership in which each partner has an equal and undivided interest in the property. In Ohio, for example, the county in which the business is located issues a business certificate. This certificate lists the name of the partnership, the location of the office and the location of the real property along with the names and addresses of all the partners. In a gen- Real Estate 13 eral partnership, the deed to any land held in the name of the partnership needs only the name of one partner as the grantee and the property itself can be sold or mortgaged by any of the partners.

Limited Partnerships A limited partnership is also an association of two or more persons who contribute money or property to carry on a joint business; they are also co-owners of the business, and, as such, share in its profits and losses. A limited partnership has one or more general partners and one or more limited partners. Limited partners, however, do not have any input into partnership matters. It has at least investors. The trustees, one or more persons, manage the property for the investors.

The title of the property is vested in the name of the trustees. These trustees are bound to the requirements of the trust document. The investors enforce the performance of the trust, but do not have a legal interest in the property. A property appraisal is an estimate or opinion of value of a specific piece of property at a specific place in time.

The appraisal, then, is an estimate or opinion of value supported by objective evidence and data. Land value, however, is appraised separately and then added to the depreciated construction cost of the structure. Site value is determined by the location and improvements exclusive of buildings of the specific property, or site. The appraiser then finds recently sold comparable properties. Sale price adjustments are made to account for any significant differences between the comparable and the specific property.

The value of the property is then based upon an estimate of the site values based on the adjusted values of the comparables. First, attention must be paid to creating well-designed, comfortable and compliant working environments. To achieve the goal of a well-designed, comfortable, compliant and efficient working environment, facility managers should, along with their planning teams, identify the needs of the organization in terms of the management of space and incorporate these needs into the plan.

One of the key considerations in the management of space is Problem Identification. Organizational requirements, technological requirements, HVAC requirements, lighting, security, ADA signage and accommodations, and intended benefits are among many of the factors that should be incorporated into the plan. The Planning Phase The planning phase is the heart of the project. In this phase, the organization needs to examine its mission, the reasons for the project and the expected outcomes that will later measure the success of the plan.

Thought should be given to the present ways of doing business and the real and probable future changes in business practices. The organizational requirements for the successful implementation of the plan include flexibility, minimization of barriers and encouragement of teamwork and interaction. During the planning phase, strategic and master plans for the future will be developed.

Core business issues, customer relations, finance, administration and information technology are among the basis for forming the plan. Assembling a team to develop plans is a first step in the planning phase. The planning committee should consist of in-house personnel and the appropriate professional consultants. The Planning Team The planning team should include selected representatives from in-house personnel that represent the makeup of the organization.

Management, financial officials and the occupants of the building—those that have a vested interest in the outcome should also comprise the planning team. Worker interaction should be part of the goals along with ideas about the types of technology. Integral to these space-planning concepts and which should be considered include alternative office spaces.

Alternative office spaces determine how, when and where people work; once this is done, a match of those needs to the range of work environment solutions can be made. For example, if a person may not be required to come in to the office location daily, then an off-site location can be used. Alternative office space can also include innovative onpremise arrangements. Employees must work together to determine when they each can use the space. Where an employee is not required to come in to the office everyday, the off-premise strategy is addressed.

Satellite offices are typically operated by and for a single employer, while telecenters operate independently and are used by numerous employers. In a study commissioned by the General Services Administration GSA , that agency noted the most common space planning concepts in use today. These concepts include assigned, or territorial, workspaces and the unassigned non-territorial, just-intime workspaces.

Team Space: Dedicated spaces, available either on an ad hoc daily basis or for longer periods, which allow group tasks to be done. Universal Planning: A common size or module that fits most uses. This design tool can accommodate fixed and open design concepts. Community Space Areas: Areas set up for informal social gathering and conversation e. Hoteling and Moteling: Non-assigning workstations that can be individually reserved for use.

Views and Vistas: Providing the maximum views to the outside by leaving the window walls unblocked. Ergonomics: The entire environment, not just furniture, designed and provided to benefit the health and comfort of the employees. System Modularity: A regular, interchangeable system that allows for maximum flexibility and reconfiguration of the space to meet changing functional needs and number of staff.

System Redundancy, Durability, and Maintainability: HVAC, lighting, power, security, and telecommunications systems with back-up capabilities to ensure minimal loss of service. Artificial Lighting: Appropriate levels and types direct, indirect, and task of lighting allowing employees to control levels of light as necessary. Daylighting: Natural daylight supplied to the greatest number of people by leaving the window walls unblocked or using translucent partitions or windows where closed spaces are necessary.

Air Quality: Allowing workers to adjust the space for thermal control to meet personal and team comfort levels for fresh air, thermal control, humidity, and odor control. Interior Landscaping: Natural plants and vegetation, helping to produce healthy air and create an attractive working environment.

Space Management 21 Communications: Conditions permitting easy communications among workers, while allowing simultaneous access to data. Impact upon business operations. How daily work routines will be affected. Does it also accommodate the present needs as well as anticipated needs of the workforce?

Workplace alternative, i. For example, the space needs of a secretary or file clerk are sometimes greater than their supervisor. Finally, suitable space planning concepts should be used. The space plan should be cost effective now and in the future. And, finally, this technology should use suitable procurement and maintenance methods.

Sources: U. Second Printing, April, Change Management 23 Chapter 3 Change Management hange management is a loosely defined term that refers to a broad array of activities and initiatives that occur in the workplace. As such, in order to be effective, a change management program must integrate those program elements that address any of the variety of elements: communication, training and testing, program planning, market analysis and implementation of new policies and procedures. Communication is at the core of the change management program.

For example, a definition of the major goal of the project must be determined. Is the goal to support current business needs, or is the goal intended to improve customer service, or attract and retain employees? Explanation—explaining how it will occur and why it needs to occur, as well as describing when it well occur is another important part of the communication process. Progression—providing the timely information on the various stages of implementation are prerequisites to an effective change management approach.

With employees, for example, discussing such issues as career development, performance assessment, technical skills and work and family issues should alleviate some of their concerns. New suggestions and new ideas for implementing change can be generated from such a group. Developing a Communications Strategy A second aspect to the change management strategy includes developing a communications strategy. Facility managers can use a number of methods to plan and implement a communications strategy for all aspects of their change management initiative.

Program planning. Adapting to an organizational mandate. Organized communications systems. Cost and quality control. Good market research allows companies to make the most efficient use of their resources and measures success in safety and health communications Market analysis identifies the communication need. Like facility planning, effective program planning or product development expedites bringing new programs, products and services on board, while assuring the cost-efficiency of the result. Promotion The promotional aspects of marketing serve as a logical follow-up to program planning.

Promotion is the active process of communicating safety policies, training and other important safety and health information to the building occupants. The specific criteria used to evaluate effectiveness include the right combination of structure, systems and staff skills. Structure By nature, market and program planning cross all organizational lines and require the input and commitment of all employee levels. Analysis, then, becomes the function of all employees, with each person assuming responsibilities for change management and acting upon those responsibilities.

Facility managers must work with the Change Planning Committee, the organizationally sanctioned group that has the authority to make and enforce decisions.


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Managers and supervisors are responsible for ensuring the successful change in their respective divisions and departments. All managers and supervisors should incorporate practical considerations in their specific communications strategies. The practical considerations for doing so are described below. Communication incentive. Management techniques. Developing these open lines is essential to the change management strategy. Regularly scheduled peer-level meetings, as well as manager-employee meetings, give everyone in the company an opportunity to exchange ideas, concerns, and the opportunity to provide input into company direction and policy.

Committee actions, recommendations, etc. Communication Incentives Communication incentives are non-financial opportunities that can be used to let employees know their worth to the orga- Change Management 29 nization. Employee profiles in annual reports, shareholder notices, or client mailings are other techniques that employers may want to consider in recognizing the change-committed employee. Sources Gustin, Joseph F. It promotes workplace productivity. With good indoor air quality, odors, dust and contaminants are kept to a minimum.

The circulating air prevents drafts and stuffiness. The temperature is comfortable during all the seasons. Good Indoor Air Quality also promotes building marketability.


Potential buyers or lessees see advantages to owning or leasing a well-maintained and a well-managed building. In these cases, productivity is reduced and a marked increase in absenteeism can occur. Good indoor air quality starts with a commitment from the top. Such practices must include developing a communications policy that addresses 1.

Communications Policy An effective communications policy enhances the effort to diagnose and correct problems. Indoor air quality problems can be prevented if staff and building occupants are made aware of how their activities affect air quality. Depending upon the size or use of the facility, a health and safety committee or a joint managementtenant IAQ task force can establish a list of indoor air quality guidelines and communicate these guidelines to promote good working conditions. Equipment Problems The facility staff should be alert to malfunctioning equipment Indoor Air Quality 33 or accidents that can produce indoor air quality problems.

It is the staff that can play a definitive role in identifying and preventing potential problems as well as averting problems. Minimizing Energy Costs Some efforts to minimize energy costs can contribute to poor indoor air quality. For example, reducing temperature to save heating costs can impact ventilation systems and increase moisture problems. Once a problem has been identified, facility managers and their staff can begin to correct the problem.

Air quality checklists, like the one described below, are helpful in identifying problem areas, sources of contaminants, as well as potential problem areas. Environmental Protection Agency ————————————————————————————— Figure Contributing to indoor air quality are such diverse elements as new office equipment, new and existing furnishings, housekeeping activities, room dividers, and the personal activities of the building occupants. Large and multi-use buildings such as apartment buildings, hospitals, schools, shopping malls and facilities that contain food preparation areas e.

Indoor air contaminants can originate from inside the building, and also from outside sources that are drawn inside. The EPA lists the factors most involved in the development of indoor air quality problems. Many of these contaminants are far below the standards or guidelines for occupational exposure. Common Indoor Pollutants The following lists information about several indoor air pollutants common to offices, multi-use buildings and schools.

Many of these contaminants are small enough to be inhaled. Sources Biological contaminants are, or are produced by, living things. They are often found in areas that provide food and moisture or water. For example, damp or wet areas such as cooling coils, humidifiers, condensation pans, or unvented bathrooms can be moldy.

Draperies, bedding, carpet, and other areas where dust collects may accumulate biological contaminants. Biological contaminants, including molds and pollens can cause allergic reactions for many people. The key to mold control is moisture control. If mold is a problem, clean up the mold and get rid of excess water or moisture. Employ integrated pest management to control insect and animal allergens. Sources Human metabolic processes and all combustion processes of carbon fuels are sources of CO2. Health Effects CO2 is an asphyxiate. At concentrations above 1.

Indoor Air Quality Figure It results from incomplete oxidation of carbon in combustion processes. Sources Common sources of CO are from improperly vented furnaces, malfunctioning gas ranges, or exhaust fumes that have been drawn back into the building. Worn or poorly adjusted and maintained combustion devices e. HVAC can be significant sources, or a flue that is improperly sized, blocked, disconnected, or leaking. Auto, truck, or bus exhaust from attached garages, nearby roads, or idling vehicles in parking areas can also be a source.

The Consumer Product Safety Commission recommends levels not to exceed 15 ppm for 1 hour or 25 ppm for 8 hours. Health Effects CO is an asphyxiate. Myocardium, brain, and exercising muscle tissues, those with the highest oxygen needs, are the first affected by COHb. The symptoms produced resemble influenza. These symptoms include fatigue, headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, cognitive impairment, and tachycardia. Air and fuel mixtures must be properly adjusted to ensure more complete combustion.

Vehicles adjacent to buildings should not be idling unnecessarily. Additional ventilation can be used as a temporary measure when high levels of CO are expected for short periods of time. Sources Many sources can produce dust including: soil, fleecy surfaces, pollen, lead-based paint, and burning wood, oil or coal. Health Effects Health effects vary depending upon the characteristics of the dust and any associated toxic materials. Dust particles may contain lead, pesticide residues, radon, or other toxic materials. Other particles may be irritants or carcinogens e.

Use damp dusting and high efficiency vacuums. Upgrade filters in ventilation systems to medium efficiency; change frequently. Exhaust combustion appliance to the outside. Over specific chemicals have been identified in the particulate and associated gases. Sources Tobacco product combustion. The Pro-Children Act of prohibits smoking in Head Start facilities, and in kindergarten, elementary and secondary schools that receive federal funding from the Department of Education the Department of Agriculture, or in the Department of Health and Human Services except Medicare or Medicaid.

Common Indoor Air Pollutants Cont'd chronic respiratory conditions. It has multiple health effects on children. It is also associated with the onset of asthma, increased severity of, or difficulty in controlling, asthma, frequent upper respiratory infections, persistent middle-ear effusion, snoring, repeated pneumonia, bronchitis. Control Measures Smoke outside. Smoke only in rooms which are properly ventilated and exhausted to the outdoors. Sources Sources of lead include drinking water, food, contaminated oil, dust, and air.

Lead-based paint is a common source of lead dust. Health Effects Lead can cause serious damage to the brain, kidneys, nervous system, and red blood cells. Children are particularly vulnerable. Lead Exposure in children can result in delays in physical development, lower IQ levels, shortened attention spans, and increased behavioral problems. Control Measures Preventive measures to reduce lead exposure include: Cleaning, mopping floors, wiping window ledges and other smooth flat areas with damp cloths frequently.

Both are toxic gases with NO2 being a highly reactive oxidant and corrosive. Sources The primary sources indoors are combustion processes, such as unvented combustion appliances, e. Standards or Guidelines No standards have been agreed upon for the nitrogen oxides in indoor air. Health Effects NO2 is an irritant affecting the mucus of the eyes, nose, throat and respiratory tract. Extremely high-dose exposure building fire may result in pulmonary edema and diffuse lung injury.

Continued exposure to high NO2 levels contributes to acute or chronic bronchitis.

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Low level NO2 exposure may cause increased bronchial reactivity in some asthmatics, decreased lung function in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and increased risk of respiratory infections. Control Measures Venting the NO2 sources to the outdoors, and assuring that combustion appliances are correctly installed, used, and maintained are the most effective measures to reduce exposures. Pesticides are chemicals that are used to kill or control pests which include bacteria, fungi, and other organisms, in addition to insects and rodents. Pesticides are inherently toxic. Sources Pesticides occur indoors or can be tracked in from the outdoors.

Standards or Guidelines No air concentration standards for pesticides have been set. Pesticide products must be used according to application and ventilation instructions provided by the manufacturer. Health Effects Symptoms may include headache, dizziness, muscular weakness, and nausea. Chronic exposure to some pesticides can result in damage to the liver, kidneys, endocrine and nervous systems.

If chemicals must be used, use only the recommended amounts, mix or dilute pesticides outdoors in an isolated well ventilated area, apply to unoccupied areas, and dispose of unwanted pesticides safely to minimize exposure. It decays into solid alpha particles which can be both inhaled directly or attached to dust particles that are inhaled. The unit of measure for radon is picocuries per liter pCiL. High concentrations of radon can occur in well water and in masonry blocks.

The principle source is the earth around and under buildings. Radon penetrates cracks and drain openings in foundations, into basements and crawl spaces. Water containing radon will out-gas into spaces when drawn for use indoors. Some building materials will out-gas radon.

Health Effects Radon is a known human lung carcinogen. There is evidence of a synergistic effect between cigarette smoking and radon; the risks from exposure to both may exceed the risk from either acting alone. Sealing foundations to prevent radon entry as a stand-alone strategy is rarely successful.

However sealing major entry points can improve the effectiveness of other strategies. Common Indoor Air Pollutants Cont'd tion can reduce radon levels by dilution or pressurization of the building. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short- and long-term adverse health effects. Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently higher indoors up to ten times higher than outdoors.

Sources VOCs are emitted by a wide array of products numbering in the thousands.

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Examples include: paints, lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials, furnishings; office equipment such as copiers, printers, correction fluids, carbonless copy paper, graphics; craft materials, glues and adhesives, permanent markers, and photographic solutions. OSHA regulates formaldehyde as a carcinogen. Formaldehyde should be mitigated when it is present at levels higher than 0.

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Common Indoor Air Pollutants Conclusion headache, allergic skin reaction, dyspnea, declines in serum cholinesterase levels, nausea, emesis, epistaxis, fatigue, dizziness. Meet or exceed any label precautions. Formaldehyde can be readily measured. Identify and remove the source. An integrated pest management technique reduces the need for pesticides. Factors that Affect Occupant Comfort In addition to the factors that directly impact the levels of pollutants to which people are exposed, a number of environmental and personal factors can affect how people receive air quality.

Some of these factors affect both the levels of pollutants and individual perception of air quality. In a study cited by the General Services Agency it was found that computer programmers, for example, performed optimally when the work area is efficiently designed. Access to windows, closed office space, workplace size, furniture and finishes were important or very important to the productivity of the occupant.

See Figure Thermal comfort, air quality and lighting may also have an impact on work performance. It is also true with managing the IAQ of a facility. General Services Administration Figure 4. Provide Accurate Information Communication can prevent many indoor air quality problems if staff and building occupants understand how their activities affect indoor air quality. As stated earlier, mixed use buildings pose the greatest venue for indoor air quality complaints. Kitchens and cooking odors, for example, may prove unpleasant to a nearby office occupant.

Occupancy Rate Ventilation systems are designed and operated to ensure air quality and comfort for a specific number of occupants. This standard is the reference for proper ventilation required to provide a quality work environment. Modifications Any change in the use of building space, including the installation of movable walls, partitions, new equipment etc. Therefore these changes should be reviewed so that the HVAC system can be modified as needed. Building owners, facility mangers, and occupants share responsibility for monitoring new equipment installation and changes in the use of space.

Because these are activities that produce odors, the notification procedures should be established for informing tenants before the start of such activities. As discussed earlier, procedures should be established for notification of complaints. In addition to the complaint form, establishing a record keeping system of complaints and actions taken is invaluable documentation that can help resolve complaints.

This record keeping system also shows actual problem areas. On other occasions, complaints originate from the interaction of several variables, and detailed investigation may be necessary in order to resolve the problem. Whatever the case, complaints should be responded to quickly, respecting the view of the complainant. The Importance of Response IAQ complaints may be grounded in poor indoor air quality, thermal conditions, noise, glare, or even job stresses.

Indoor air quality problems include concerns with temperature control, ventilation, and air pollutants. Personal observations can help to resolve the problem as quickly as possible. Please use the space below to describe the nature of the complaint and any potential causes. We may need to contact you to discuss the complaint.

What is the best time to reach you? Open communication can alleviate the perception that no action is being taken or that important information is being withheld. Being attentive to communication and problem solving helps to ensure the support and cooperation of building occupants as the complaint is investigated and resolved. This can be done in a variety of ways: building postings, newsletters, directory information, etc.

Complaints may be channeled through a committee, supervisor, health and safety representative, or directly to the IAQ representative. IAQ complaints, as discussed earlier, should be handled quickly and responsibly. Minor complaints such as annoying odors from an easily-identified source can be handled promptly. This information must be communicated to the occupants, as well as to the complainants.

Figure is a sampling of the types of IAQ problem and their associated responses. It is a sampling of the type of problems that require immediate action and those that are less problematic. Immediately investigate sources of combustion gases. Request Health Department assistance in determining whether the building is the source of the infection. Discard any damp carpeting that cannot be lifted, and dried within a short period of time. No reported health complaints to suggest IAQ problems.

Inadequately maintained humidifiers can promote the growth of biological contaminants. Equipment should be cleaned thoroughly and modification of maintenance practices should be considered. They decided that their problems are due to conditions in the building. These symptoms suggest an IAQ problem that is not life-threatening. A prompt response to thiscomplaint is warranted. Volatile compounds emitted by the new furnishings could be causing the complaints.

Test appropriate locations in the building to determine the indoor radon concentration. Contact a laboratory that tests asbestos. Releasing premature information, i. The progress of the investigation. Factors that have been evaluated. How long the investigation might take. Attempts that are being made to improve indoor air quality. Work that remains to be done and the schedule for its completion.

The Definition of the Complaint Define the complaint area based upon the location and distribution of complaints. This information may be revised as the investigation progresses. Indoor Air Quality 61 The Progress of the Investigation Include in this information the types of information that is being gathered. Length of the Investigation This section should include the estimated time for discovery and mitigation of the problem.

Schedule for Completion Identify projected or anticipated completion date for problem resolutions. In summary, communication is essential for an effective IAQ management policy. The IAQ Profile An indoor air quality profile is an effective tool to aid in the understanding of the current status of air quality in the building and provides the necessary information of those factors. It can help assess the status of the current air quality, as well as help in identifying potential problem areas. Combining the IAQ profile with the security function, lighting management systems, etc.

Original Function of the Building Research the original use of the building including its components and furnishings, mechanical equipment HVAC and nonHVAC , and the occupant population and associated activities. Current Function of the Building If the building was commissioned compare the information from the commissioning to its current use. Changes that Have Occurred Analyze past and present building layout changes. Potential changes in future uses should be considered.

See Figure These examples are just that—problems that could or could not be associated with any one particular building. They are listed here as examples of problems along with their solutions. Remodeling or repair activities reproduce problems. Office of Atmospheric and Indoor Air Programs. Indoor Air Division; U. Figure Measured outdoor air ventilation rates do not meet guidelines for outdoor air supply that is design specifications, applicable codes, or ASHRAE Peak CO2 concentrations above ppm indicate inadequate ventilation.

Corrosion of fan casing causes air bypassing and reduces airflow in system. Note: While such interference can cause IAQ problems, it is often initiated in response to unresolved ventilation or temperature control problems. Solutions Remove the source by eliminating the activity Note: This may require a combination of policy-setting and educational outreach.

Problem 5: HVAC System is a Source of Biological Contaminants The HVAC system can act as a source of contaminants by providing a hospitable environment for the growth of microorganisms and then distributing biologically-contaminated air within the building. Biocides, disinfectants, and sanitizers should be used with caution. Minimize occupant exposure. Sample IAQ Problems and Solutions Continued provide emissions test data, but should use caution in interpreting the test results.

Problem Housekeeping or Maintenance Activities Contribute to Problems Examples Cleaning products emit chemicals, odors Particulates become airborne during cleaning e. One combustion product, carbon monoxide, is an odorless gas. Carbon monoxide poisoning can be life-threatening. Combustion gases from equipment e. Even a single confirmed diagnosis which involves results from specific medical tests should provoke an immediate and vigorous response.

This disease is not necessarily associated with building occupancy. Public health agencies do not investigate single cases, however, check for new cases. EPA K, June, Emergency escape procedures and emergency route assignments. Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to perform or shut down critical plant operations before they evacuate.

Procedures to account for all employees after emergency evacuations have been completed. Rescue and medical duties for those employees who are to perform them. The preferred means for reporting fires and other emergencies. Names or regular job titles of people or departments to be contacted for further information or explanation of duties under the plan.

Finally, before implementing the emergency action plan, the employer must designate and train a sufficient number of people to assist in the safe and orderly emergency evacuation of employees and occupants. Therefore, it is essential to perform a hazard audit and worksite or facility analysis to determine potential disasters. For example, information on chemicals that are used in the worksite can be obtained from the Material Safety Data Sheets MSDS that are provided by the manufacturer or supplier of the chemical.

These forms describe the hazards that a chemical may present, list precautions to take when handling, sorting or using the substance, and outline emergency and first-aid procedures. Response Effectiveness and Leadership The effectiveness of response during any emergency, including a disaster, depends on the amount of planning and training that occurs. The input and support of all personnel within the facility—including company employees and tenant-occupants—must be obtained to ensure an effective program.

The emergency preparedness plan should be developed locally—i. Those employees who remain behind to care for essential facility functions until their evacuation becomes necessary must also be provided with specific procedures that detail what actions they must take. These detailed procedures may include monitor- Emergency Preparedness 85 ing critical power supplies, as well as other essential services that cannot be shut down for every emergency alarm. Whenever responsibilities under the plan change. Whenever the plan itself is changed. The Chain of Command A chain of command should be established to minimize any confusion among employees and tenant-occupants regarding the lines of decision-making authority.

Responsible people should be selected to coordinate the work of an emergency response team. Facility managers, by virtue of their critical roles within an organization, are the logical people to be charged with this responsibility. However, it is imperative that additional personnel be designated and trained as back-up support so that the facility is covered, available to implement the plan at all times.

The responsibilities of the designated person and back-up support include: 1. Assessing the situation to determine whether an emergency or disaster exists that requires the activation of emergency procedures. Directing all site-evacuation efforts to minimize injuries and property loss. Ensuring that outside emergency services i.

In situations involving a fire or explosion, normal utility services, e. While the type of alarm system is contingent upon its purpose, alarms should be audible or be seen by all people in the facility. An auxiliary power supply is required in the event that the main power source is interrupted. An alarm should be both distinctive and recognizable as a signal to either evacuate the work area or facility, or to take other actions as prescribed in the emergency preparedness plan. This section does not apply to those discharge or supervisory alarms required on various fixed extinguishing systems or to supervisory alarms on fire suppression, alarm or detection systems unless they are intended to be employee alarm systems.

Tactile devices may be used to alert those employees who would not otherwise be able to recognize the audible or visual alarm. The employer shall post emergency 88 For those employers with 19 or fewer employees in a particular workplace, direct voice communication is an acceptable procedure for sounding the alarm provided all employees can hear the alarm. Such workplaces need not have a back-up system.

Steam whistles, air horns, strobe lights or similar lighting devices, or tactile devices meeting the requirement of this section are considered to meet this requirement for approval. Spare alarm devices and components subject to wear or destruction shall be available in sufficient quantities and locations for prompt restoration of the system. Emergency Preparedness 89 Additionally, each employee or tenant-occupant should be made aware of the procedures for reporting emergencies, including the use of manual pull box alarms, public address systems, or telephones.

Emergency phone numbers should be posted on or near telephones, as well as on employee and tenant-occupant bulletin boards, and in other conspicuous locations. The communications plan should be in writing; all employees and tenant-occupants should be made aware of its purpose and what action s should be taken in the event of an emergency or disaster. An updated written priority-call list should be maintained at all times. Accounting for Personnel Accounting for personnel is not only a critical issue it can also be a difficult issue to address.

Accounting for people after an emergency site evacuation occurs can be compounded if the evacuation occurs during shift changes, or when other non-site personnel are occupying the building e. Also, this person should have the additional responsibility and authority to inform the police, fire and appropriate medical personnel of any known or suspected missing people. Performing first aid procedures, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR. Conducting shutdown procedures. Using a self-contained breathing apparatus, or SCBA.

Conducting search and emergency rescue procedures. For example, team members should be informed about any special hazards that they many encounter during an emergency situation—such as the on-site location and storage of flammable materials, toxic chemicals, water-reactive substances, etc. Equally important to note is that emergency response team members must also be advised of when not to intervene in an emergency or disaster situation.

Certain crisis situations warrant professional firefighters and other professional emergency response personnel. In short, all emergency team members must temper enthusiasm and concern with common sense. Training Training is the single most important factor in any emergency preparedness and disaster planning effort. Training for each type of disaster response is necessary so that emergency response team members know what actions are required. Alarm systems. Shutdown procedures. New employees or tenant-occupants are assigned to the facility.

New equipment, materials, processes, etc. Test drills, rehearsals, etc. When drills are conducted, it is advisable that they should include groups supplying outside services such as police and fire departments and medical standby facilities. Personal Protection Effective personal protection is essential for people who may be exposed to potentially hazardous substances. Unknown atmospheres that may contain toxic gases, vapors, mists, etc. Fires and electrical hazards. To adequately protect people in these situations, various types of safety equipment may be required. Hard hats and safety shoes for head and foot protection.

Respirators for breathing protection. Whole body coverings, as well as gloves, hoods and boots for protection from chemicals. Body protection for abnormal environmental conditions such as extreme temperatures. And, any safety equipment that is, or will be used, should be selected only after consultation with safety and health professionals.

For example, professional advice will most likely be needed in selecting appropriate respiratory protection. Respiratory protection is necessary for toxic atmospheres of dusts, mists, gases and vapors, as well as for oxygen-deficient atmospheres. There are four basic types of respirators: 1. Air-purifying devices, such as filters, gas masks, and chemical cartridges, which remove contaminants from the air but which cannot be used in oxygen-deficient atmospheres.

Air-supplied devices, such as hose masks, air line respirators, which should not be used in any atmospheres that are immediately dangerous to health or life. Self-contained breathing apparatus, which are required for unknown atmospheres, oxygen-deficient atmospheres, or at- Emergency Preparedness 93 mospheres, that are immediately dangerous to life or health positive-pressure type only. Escape masks. Before any member of the emergency response team uses any of the respiratory devices, however, it is imperative that the conditions shown below are satisfied: 1.

A medical evaluation must be made to determine if the people are physically able to use the device s. Written procedures detailing the safe use and care of the devices must be developed prior to use. People who will be using the devices must be trained in the proper use and maintenance of the respirators. This testing must be repeated periodically. Training must also provide the wearer with opportunities to handle the respirator, have it fitted properly, test its face-piece-to-face seal, and wear it in both normal air for a familiarity period and in a test atmosphere.

A regular maintenance program must be installed that includes cleaning, inspecting and testing of all respiratory devices. To ensure that respirators which are used for emergency response are in satisfactory working condition, the devices must be inspected after each use and at least monthly. A written inspection record must also be maintained. Distribution areas for equipment used in emergencies must be readily accessible. These confined spaces include tanks, vessels, pits, sewers, pipelines and vaults. Entry into a confined space can expose a person to a variety of hazards, including toxic gases, explosive atmospheres, oxygen deficiency, as well as electrical hazards and hazards that are created by mixers and impellers that have not been deactivated and locked out.

No person should ever enter a confined space under normal circumstances unless the atmosphere within the confined space has been tested for adequate oxygen, combustibility and toxicity. Unless proved otherwise, conditions in a confined space must be considered immediately dangerous to life and health. When a confined space must be entered because of an emergency, the following precautions must be taken: 1.

All impellers, agitators, or other moving equipment inside the vessel must be locked out. Appropriate personal protective equipment must be worn by people before they enter the confined space. Mandatory use of safety belts and harnesses must also be stressed. Rescue procedures for each entry must be specifically developed. Emergency Preparedness 95 When there is an atmosphere that is immediately dangerous to life or health, or a situation that has the potential for causing injury or illness to an unprotected person, a trained standby person should be present.

The standby person should be assigned a fully-charged, positive-pressure, self-contained breathing apparatus with a full face piece. The standby person must also maintain unobstructed life lines and communications to all people within the confined space and be prepared to summon rescue personnel, if necessary. The standby person should not enter the confined space until adequate assistance is present. While awaiting rescue personnel, the standby person may make a rescue attempt utilizing life lines from outside the confined space.

Medical Assistance In an emergency or disaster situation, time is a critical factor in minimizing injuries. There are a number of requirements that have been outlined by OSHA and which must be met to ensure availability of medical assistance. These requirements are: 1. In the absence of an infirmary, clinic, or hospital in close proximity to the workplace that can be used for the treatment of all injured employees, the employer must ensure that an adequate number of employees are trained to render first aid.

Where the eye or body of any employee may be exposed to injurious corrosive materials, eye washes or suitable equipment for quick drenching or flushing must be provided in the work area for immediate emergency use. Employees must be trained to use the equipment. The employer must ensure the ready availability of medical personnel for advice and consultation on matters of employee health.

This does not mean that health care must be provided, but rather that, if medical problems develop in the workplace, medical help will be available to resolve them. Survey the medical facilities near the place of business and make arrangements to handle routine and emergency cases. A written emergency medical procedure should then be prepared for handling accidents with minimum confusion.

If the business is located far from medical facilities, at least one and preferably more employees on each shift must be adequately trained to render first aid. The American Red Cross, some insurance carriers, local safety councils, fire departments, and others may be contacted for this training.

First-aid supplies should be provided for emergency use. This equipment should be ordered through consultation with a physician. Emergency phone numbers should be posted in conspicuous places near or on telephones. Sufficient ambulance service should be available to handle any emergency. This requires advance contact with ambulance services to ensure they become familiar with plant locations, access routes and hospital locations.

Security During a disaster, it is oftentimes necessary to secure a facility to prevent unauthorized access and to protect vital records and equipment. An off-limits area must be established by cordoning off the area with ropes and signs. In some situations it may become necessary to notify local law enforcement personnel to secure the area and to prevent the entry of unauthorized people to the facility.

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Additionally, certain data may need to be protected, including employee and emergency number files, and legal and accounting fields. Companies and their individual facilities normally maintain duplicate copies of such data and information in separate protected locations. These elements are also critical to the effectiveness of response time during an emergency, whether the emergency involves an accidental release of toxic gases, chemical spills, fires, explosions and any personal injury that may be sustained as a result of the occurrence.

Gustin, Joseph F. Atlanta: The Fairmont Press Inc. The plan must also describe the various actions that management and employees will undertake to ensure safety from fire and other emergency occurrences. This section provides the procedures and a sample plan that can be used by facility managers and other compliance professionals to customize, develop and implement a site-specific emergency response plan that can be used to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR This sample Emergency Response Plan also addresses the provisions for employee alarm systems, as mandated by 29 CFR Provision for training employees designated to assist in the emergency evacuation of employees is also included in this emergency action plan and is described in detail.

The provision for employee alarm systems, as mandated by 29 CFR Add to Cart Details.

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Product details. Customer reviews. An essential guide. This book provides facilities managers with the tools and guidance they need to wipe out inefficiency and provide a facility that integrates people, place, and process. Featured Authors. Bouwer Kleynhans View all books by Bouwer Kleynhans 1. Table of contents. Related products.