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- GOBLIN TALES OF LANCASHIRE.
Yet beekeeping is a difficulty there, owing to the gales, that sweep the busy insects away, so that they fail to find their direction home. Only in sheltered combes can they be kept. The much-relished Swiss honey is a manufactured product of glycerine and pear-juice; but Dartmoor honey is the sublimated essence of ambrosial sweetness in taste and savour, drawn from no other source than the chalices of the golden furze, and compounded with no adventitious matter.
Dartmoor from a distance—Elevation—The tors—Old lake-beds—"Clitters"—The boldest tors—Luminous moss—The whortleberry—Composition of granite—Wolfram—The "forest" and its surrounding commons—Venville parishes—Encroachment of culture on the moor—The four quarters—A drift—Attempts to reclaim the moor—Flint finds—The inclosing of commons. Seen from a distance, as for instance from Winkleigh churchyard, or from Exbourne, Dartmoor presents a stately appearance, as a ridge of blue mountains rising boldly against the sky out of rolling, richly wooded under-land.
But it is only from the north and north-west that it shows so well. From south and east it has less dignity of aspect, as the middle distance is made up of hills, as also because the heights of the encircling tors are not so considerable, nor is their outline so bold. Indeed, the southern edge of Dartmoor is conspicuously tame. It has no abrupt and rugged heights, no chasms cleft and yawning in the range, such as those of the Okement and the Tavy and Taw. And to the east much high ground is found rising in stages to the fringe of the heather-clothed tors. Dartmoor, consisting mainly of a great upheaved mass of granite, and of a margin of strata that have been tilted up round it, forms an elevated region some thirty-two miles from north to south and twenty from east to west.
The heated granite has altered the slates in contact with it, and is itself broken through on the west side by an upward gush of molten matter which has formed Whit Tor and Brent Tor. The greatest elevations are reached on the outskirts, and there, also, is the finest scenery. The interior consists of rolling upland.
It has been likened to a sea after a storm suddenly arrested and turned to stone; but a still better resemblance, if not so romantic, is that of a dust-sheet thrown over the dining-room chairs, the backs of which resemble the tors divided from one another by easy sweeps of turf. Most of the heights are crowned with masses of rock standing up like old castles; these, and these only, are tors. There are no lakes on or about the moor, but this was not always so. Where is now Bovey Heathfield was once a noble sheet of water fifty fathoms deep.
Here have been found beds of lignite, forests that have been overwhelmed by the wash from the moor, a canoe rudely hollowed out of an oak, and a curious wooden idol was exhumed leaning against a trunk of tree that had been swallowed up in a freshet. The canoe was nine feet long. Bronze spear-heads have also been found in this ancient lake, and moulds for casting bronze instruments. A [Pg 16] representation of the idol was given in the Transactions of the Devonshire Association for The new Plymouth Reservoir overlies an old lake-bed. Taw Marsh was also once a sheet of rippling blue water, but the detritus brought down in the weathering of what once were real mountains has filled them all up.
Dartmoor at present bears the same relation to Dartmoor in the far past that the gums of an old hag bear to the pearly range she wore when a fresh girl. The granite of Dartmoor was not well stirred before it was turned out, consequently it is not homogeneous. Granite is made up of many materials: hornblende, feldspar, quartz, mica, schorl, etc. Sometimes we find white mica, sometimes black. Some granite is red, as at Trowlesworthy, and the beautiful band that crosses the Tavy at the Cleave; sometimes pink, as at Leather Tor; sometimes greenish, as above Okery Bridge; sometimes pure white, as at Mill Tor.
The granite is of very various consistency, and this has given it an appearance on the tors as if it were a sedimentary rock laid in beds. But this is its little joke to impose on the ignorant. The feature is due to the unequal hardness of the rock which causes it to weather in strata. The fine-grained granite that occurs in dykes is called elvan, which, if easiest to work, is most liable to decay.
In Cornwall the elvan of Pentewan was used for the fine church of S. Austell, and as a consequence the weather has gnawed it away, and the greater part has had to be renewed. On the other hand, the splendid elvan of Haute Vienne has supplied the [Pg 17] cathedral of Limoges with a fine-grained material that has been carved like lace, and lasts well.
The drift that swept over the land would appear to have been from west to east, with a trend to the south, as no granite has been transported, except in the river-beds to the north or west, whereas blocks have been conveyed eastward. This is in accordance with what is shown by the long ridges of clay on the west of Dartmoor, formed of the rubbing down of the slaty rocks that lie north and north-west.go
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These bands all run north and south on the sides of hills, and in draining processes they have to be pierced from east to west. This indicates that at some period during the Glacial Age there was a wash of water from the north-west over Devon, depositing clay and transporting granite. On the sides of the tors are what are locally termed "clitters" or "clatters" Welsh clechr , consisting of a vast quantity of stone strewn in streams from the tors, spreading out fanlike on the slopes. These are the wreckage of the tor when far higher than it is now, i.
There may be a tor, or a group of tors, crowning an eminence, but the effect, either near or afar, is to give the hilltop a grand and imposing look. These large blocks of granite, poised on one another, some appearing as if they must fall, others piled with curious regularity—considering they are Nature's work—are the [Pg 18] prominent features in a Dartmoor landscape, and, wild as parts of Dartmoor are, the tors add a notable picturesque effect to the scene.
There are very fine tors on the western side of the moor. Those on the east and south are not so fine as those on the north and west. In the centre of the moor there are also fine tors. They are, in fact, very numerous, for nearly every little hill has its granite cap, which is a tor, and every tor has its name. Some of the high hills that are tor-less are called beacons, and were doubtless used as signal beacons in times gone by. As the tors are not grouped or built with any design by Nature to attract the eye of man, they are the more attractive on that account, and one of their consequent peculiarities is that from different points of view they never appear the same.
There can be no sameness in a landscape of tors when every tor changes its features according to the point of view from which you look at it. Every tor also has its heap of rock at its feet, some of them very striking jumbles of blocks of granite scattered in great confusion between the tor and the foot of the hill.
Fur Tor, which is in the very wildest spot on Dartmoor, and is one of the leading tors, has a clitter of rocks on its western side as remarkable as the tor itself; Mis Tor, also on its western side, has a very fine clitter of granite; Leather Tor stands on the top of a mass of granite rocks on its east and south sides; and Hen Tor, on the south quarter, is surrounded with blocks of granite, with a hollow like the crater of a volcano, as if they had been thrown up by a great convulsion of Nature. Hen Tor is remarkable chiefly for this wonderful mass of granite blocks strewn around it.
All the moor has granite boulders scattered about, but they accumulate at the feet of the tors as if for their support. Here among the clitters, where they form caves, a search may be made for the beautiful moss Schistostega osmundacea. It has a metallic lustre like green gold, and on entering a dark place under rocks, the ground seems to be blazing with gold. In Germany the Fichtel Gebirge are of granite, and the Luchsen Berg is so called because there in the hollow under the rocks grew abundance of the moss glittering like the eyes of a lynx.
The authorities of Alexanderbad have had to rail in the grottoes to prevent the gold moss from being carried off by the curious. Murray says of these retreats of the luminous moss:—. This it is which has given rise to the fairy tales of gold and gems with which the gnomes and cobolds tantalise the poor peasants. The light resembles that of glow-worms; or, if compared to a precious stone, it is something between a chrysolite and a cat's-eye, but shining with a more metallic lustre.
On picking up some of it, and bringing it to the light, nothing is found but dirt. Professor Lloyd found that the luminous appearance was due to the presence of small crystals in the structure which reflect the light. Coleridge says:—. In , when the luminosity of plants was recorded in the Proceedings of the British Association , Mr. Babington mentioned having seen in the south of England a peculiar bright appearance produced by the presence of the Schistostega pennata , a little moss which inhabited caverns and dark places: but this was objected to on the ground that the plant reflected light, and did not give it off in phosphorescence.
When lighted on, it has the appearance of a handful of emeralds or aqua marine thrown into a dark hole, and is frequently associated with the bright green liverwort. Parfitt, in his Moss Flora of Devon , gives it as osmundacea , not as pennata. It was first discovered in Britain by a Mr. If found, please to leave alone. Gathered it is invisible; the hand or knife brings away only mud. But what all are welcome to go after is that which is abundant on every moorside—but nowhere finer than on such as have not been subjected to periodical "swaling" or burning.
I refer to the whortleberry. This delicious fruit, eaten with Devonshire cream, is indeed a delicacy. A gentleman from London was visiting me one day. As he was fond of good things, I gave him whortleberry and cream. He ate it in dead silence, then leaned back in his chair, [Pg 21] looked at me with eyes full of feeling, and said, "I am thankful that I have lived to this day.
The whortleberry is a good deal used in the south of France for the adulteration and colouring of claret, whole truck-loads being imported from Germany. There is an interesting usage in my parish, and I presume the same exists in others. On one day in summer, when the "whorts" are ripe, the mothers unite to hire waggons of the farmers, or borrow them, and go forth with their little ones to the moor.
They spend the day gathering the berries, and light their fires, form their camp, and have their meals together, returning late in the evening, very sunburnt, with very purple mouths, very tired maybe, but vastly happy, and with sufficient fruit to sell to pay all expenses and leave something over. I have a list before me that begins thus: "Allophane, actinolite, achroite, andalusite, apatite "—but I can copy out no more. I have often found appetite on Dartmoor, but have not the slightest suspicion as to what is apatite. The list winds up with wolfram, about which I can say something.
Wolfram is a mineral very generally found along with tin, and that is just the "cussedness" of it, for it spoils tin. When tin ore is melted at a good peat fire, out runs a silver streak of metal. This is brittle as glass, because of the wolfram in it. To get rid of the wolfram the whole has to be roasted, and the operation is delicate, and must have bothered our [Pg 22] forefathers considerably. By means of this second process the wolfram, or tungsten as it is also called, is got rid of.
Now, it is a curious fact that the tin of Dartmoor is of extraordinary purity; it has little or none of this abominable wolfram associated with it, so that it is by no means improbable that the value of tin as a metal was discovered on Dartmoor, or in some as yet unknown region where it is equally unalloyed. In Cornwall all the tin is mixed with tungsten. Now this material has been hitherto regarded as worthless; it has been sworn at by successive generations of miners since mining first began. But all at once it has leaped into importance, for it has been discovered to possess a remarkable property of hardening iron, and is now largely employed for armour-plated vessels.
From being worth nothing it has risen to a rapidly rising value, as we are becoming aware that we shall have to present impenetrable sides to our Continental neighbours. Dartmoor comprises the "forest" and the surrounding commons, as extensive together as the forest itself. First come the venville parishes, next their extensive commons, and "then comes Oi," the forest itself. There are others, standing like the angel of the Apocalypse, with one foot on the moorland, the other steeped in the green waves of foliage of the lowlands; such are South Tawton, Cornwood, and Tavistock.
Others, again, as Lustleigh, Bridford, Moreton, Buckland-in-the-Moor, Ilsington, and Ugborough, must surely have been moorland settlements at one time, and Okehampton itself is as distinctly a moor town as is Moreton, which tells its own tale in its name. But all these have their warm envelope of arable land, groves and woods, farms and hamlets. Such have their commons, over which every householder has a right to send cattle, to take turf and stone, and, alas!
This inclosing has been going on at a great rate in some of the parishes. For instance, common rights are exercised by the householders of South Zeal over an immense tract of land on the north side of Cosdon. Of late years they have put their heads together and decided, as they are few in number, to appropriate it to themselves as private property, and inclosures have proceeded at a rapid rate. In Bridestowe there is a tract of open land on which the poor cotters have, from time immemorial, kept their cows. But they are tenants, and not householders, and have consequently no rights.
The seven or eight owners have combined to inclose and sell or let for building purposes all that tract of moor, and the cotters have lost their privilege of keeping cows. Parishes have encroached, and the genuine forest has shrunk together before them. The commons still exist, and are extensive, but they are being gradually and surely reduced. It surely must have been larger formerly. On the forest itself are a certain number of "ancient tenements," thirty-five in all. These are of remote antiquity.
On certainly most of them, probably on all, the plough and the hoe turn up numerous flint tools, weapons, and chips—sure proof that they were settlements in prehistoric times. These were held—and some still are—by copy of the Court Roll, and the holders are bound to do suit and service at the Court.
It is customary for every holder on accession to the holding to inclose a tract of a hundred acres, and this inclosure constitutes his newtake. The forest belongs to the Prince of Wales, but I believe has never been visited by him. Were he to do so, he would be surprised, and perhaps not a little indignant, to see how his tenants are housed. A forest does not necessarily signify a wood. It is a place for wild beasts. The origin of the word is not very clear. Lindwode says, "A Forest is a place where are wild beasts; whereas a Park is a place where they are shut in. It was, in fact, a tract of uninclosed land reserved for the king to hunt in, and a chase was a similar tract reserved by the lord of the manor for his own hunting.
It is more than doubtful whether Dartmoor was ever covered with trees. No doubt there have been trees in the bottoms, and indeed oak has been taken from some of the bogs; but the charcoal found in the fire-pits of the primitive inhabitants of the moor in the Bronze Age shows that, even in the prehistoric period, the principal wood was alder, and that such oak as there was did not grow to a large size, and was mainly confined to the valleys that opened out of the moor into the lowlands. Up these, doubtless, the forest crept.
Elsewhere there may have been clusters of stunted trees, of which the only relics are Piles and Wistman's Wood. There were some very fine oaks at Brimpts, and also in Okehampton Park, but these were cut down during the European war with Napoleon. After the wood at Brimpts had fallen under the axe, it was found that the cost of carriage would be so great that the timber was sold for a mere trifle, only sufficient to pay for the labour of cutting it down. The forest is divided into four quarters, in each of which, except the western, is a pound for stray cattle.
Formerly the Forest Reeve privately communicated with the venville men when he had fixed a day for a "drift," which was always some time about midsummer. Then early in the morning all [Pg 26] assembled mounted. A horn was blown through a holed stone set up on a height, and the drift began. Cattle or horses were driven to a certain point, at which stood an officer of the Duchy on a stone, and read a proclamation, after which the owners were called to claim their cattle or ponies. Venville tenants removed them without paying any fine, but all others were pounded, and their owners could not recover them without payment of a fine.
The Duchy Pound is at Dunnabridge, where is a curious old seat within the inclosure for the adjudicator of fines and costs. It is apparently a cromlech that has been removed or adapted. The Duchy now lets the quarters to the moormen, who charge a small fee for every sheep, bullock, or horse turned out on the moor not belonging to a venville man, and for this fee they accord it their protection.
A good deal of money has been expended on the reclaiming of Dartmoor. He fondly supposed that he had discovered an uncultivated land, which needed only the plough and some lime to make its virgin soil productive. He induced others to embark on the venture. Swincombe and Stannon were started to become fine farm estates. Great entrance gates were erected to where mansions were proposed to be built.
But those who had leased these lands found that the draining of the bogs drained their pockets much faster than the mires, and abandoned the attempt [Pg 27] which had ruined them. Others followed. Prince's Hall was rebuilt with fine farm buildings by a Mr. Fowler from the north of England, who expended his fortune there and left a disappointed man. Before him Sir Francis Buller, who had bought Prince's Hall, planted there forty thousand trees—such as are not dead are distorted starvelings. Bennett built Archerton, near Post Bridge, and inclosed thousands of acres. He cannot have recovered a sum approaching his outlay in the sixty years of his tenancy.
The fact is that Dartmoor is cut out by Nature to be a pasturage for horses, cattle, and sheep in the summer months, and for that only. In the burning and dry summers of , , and tens of thousands of cattle were sent there, even from so far off as Kent, where water and pasturage were scarce, and on the moor they both are ever abundant. Tenements there must be, but they should be in the sheltered valleys, and the wide hillsides and sweeps of moor should be left severely alone. As it is, encroachments have gone on unchecked, rather have been encouraged.
Every parish in Devon has a right to send cattle to the moor, excepting only Barnstaple and Totnes. But the Duchy, by allowing and favouring inclosures, is able to turn common land into private property, and that it is only too willing to do. Happily there now exists a Dartmoor Preservation Society, which is ready to contest every attempt made in this direction. But it can do very little to protect the commons around the forest—in fact it [Pg 28] can do nothing, if the freeholders in the parishes that enjoy common rights agree together to appropriate the land to themselves—and for the poor labourer who is able to buy himself a cow it can do nothing at all, for his rights have no legal force.
From the same root as the Latin turris. Probably no other tract of land of the same extent in England contains such numerous and well-preserved remains of prehistoric antiquity as Dartmoor. The curious feature about them is that they all belong to one period, that of the Early Bronze, when flint was used abundantly, but metal was known, and bronze was costly and valued as gold is now. If iron was introduced a couple of centuries before the Christian era, how is it that the British inhabitants who used iron and had it in abundance have left no mark of their occupancy of Dartmoor?
It can be accounted for only on the supposition that they did not value it. The woods had been thinned [Pg 30] and they preferred the lowlands, whereas in the earlier period the dense forests that clothed the country were too close a jungle and too much infested by wolves to be suitable for the habitation of a pastoral people.
That under the Roman domination the tin was worked on the moor there is no evidence to show. No Roman coins have been found there except a couple brought by French prisoners to Princetown. It may be said that iron would corrode and disappear, whereas flint is imperishable, and bronze nearly so. But where is Roman pottery? Where is even the pottery of the Celtic period? An era is distinguished by its fictile ware. A huge gap in historic continuity is apparent. No indication is found that the Saxons worked the tin or even drove their cattle on to the moor. In Domesday Book Dartmoor is not even mentioned.
It is hard to escape the conclusion that from the close of the prehistoric period to that of our Plantagenet kings, Dartmoor was avoided as a waste, inhospitable region. Probably when he lived in Britain the whole upland was clothed in snow. He has left his tools in the Brixham and Torquay caves—none in the bogs of the moor.
Indeed, when these bogs have been dug into, there are not the smallest indications found of man having [Pg 31] visited the moor before the advent of what is called the Neolithic Age. About the man of this period I must say something, as he in his day lived in countless swarms on this elevated land. He may have lived also in the valleys of the lowlands, but his traces there have been obliterated by the plough. First of all as to his personal appearance. He was dark-haired, tall, and his head was long, like that of a new-born child, or boat-shaped, a form that disappears with civilisation, and resolves itself into the long face instead of the long head.
At some period, vastly remote, a great migration of a long-headed race took place from Central Asia. It went forth in many streams. One to the east entered Japan; probably the Chinese and Anamese represent another. But we are mainly concerned with the western outpour. It traversed Syria, and Gilead and Moab are strewn with its remains, hut circles, dolmens, and menhirs identical with those on Dartmoor. Hence one branch passed into Arabia, where, to his astonishment, Mr. Palgrave lighted on replicas of Stonehenge.
Another branch threw itself over the Himalayas, and covered India with identical monuments. Again another turned west; it traversed the Caspian and left innumerable traces along the northern slopes of the Caucasus. The Kuban valley is crowded with their dolmens. They occupied the Crimea, and then struck for the Baltic.
That a branch had passed through Asia Minor and Greece, and constituted itself as the Etruscan power in Italy, is probable but not established. The northern stream strewed Mecklenburg and Hanover with its remains, occupied Denmark and Lower Sweden, crossed into Britain, and took complete possession of the British Isles.
Other members of the same swarm skirted the Channel and crowded the plateaux and moors of Western and Central France with their megalithic remains. To this race the name of Iberian, Ivernian, or Silurian has been given. It contributed its name to Ireland Erin or Ierne , where it maintained itself, but was known to the conquering Gaels as the Tuatha da Danann and Firbolgs, two branches of the same stock. The name of Damnonia given to Devon is probably due to these same Danann, who were also found in the south of Scotland.
When this great people reached Europe, Japan, India, Africa, before its branches had begun to ramify to east and west, to south and north, its religious doctrines and its practices had become stereotyped, and almost ineradicably ingrained into the consciousness of the entire stock. If we desire to understand what their peculiar views were, what were the dominant ideas which directed their conduct, and which led them to erect the monuments which are marvels to us, even at the present day, we must go to China.
Let us look for a moment into China at the present day. At first sight, the Chinese strike us as being not only geographically our antipodes, but as being our opposites in every particular—mental, moral, social; in language as in ideas. The Chinese language is without an alphabet and without a grammar.
It is made up of monosyllables that acquire their significance by the position in which they are placed in a sentence. In customs the Chinese differ from us as much. In mourning they wear white; a Chinese dinner begins with the dessert and ends with the soup; a scholar, to recite [Pg 34] his lessons, turns his back on the teacher.
But it is chiefly in the way in which the living and the dead are regarded as forming an indissoluble commonwealth, that the difference of ideas is most pronounced. Regard for the dead is the first obligation to a Chinese. A man of the people who is ennobled, ennobles, not his descendants, but his ancestry. The duty of the eldest son of the family is to maintain the worship of the ancestors. Denial of a sepulchre is the most awful punishment that can be inflicted; a Chinese will cheerfully commit suicide to gain a suitable tomb and cult after death.
The most sacred spot on earth is the mausoleum, and that is perpetually inviolable. Consequently, if this principle could be carried out to the letter, the earth would be transformed into one vast necropolis, from the occupation of which the living would be in time entirely excluded.
It is this respect for graves which stands in the way of the execution of works of public utility, such as canals and railroads; and it is the imperious obligation of maintaining the worship of ancestors that blocks conversion to Christianity. It is resentment against lack of respect shown to the dead, neglect of duty to the dead, which has provoked the massacres of Christians.
A Chinese, under certain circumstances, is justified in strangling his father, but not in omitting to worship him after he has throttled him. On the great Thibet plateau, geographically contiguous to the Chinese, and under the Empire of China, the Mongol nomads are so absolutely devoid of a grain of respect for their dead, that, without [Pg 35] the smallest scruple, they leave the corpses of their parents and children on the face of the desert, to be devoured by dogs and preyed on by vultures.
If we look at the Nile valley we see that the ancient Egyptians were dominated by the same ideas as the Chinese. To them the tomb was the habitation par excellence of the family. Of the dwelling-houses of the old Egyptians the remains are comparatively mean, but their mausoleums are palatial. The house for the living was but as a tent, to be removed; but the mansion of the dead was a dwelling-place for ever. Not only so, but just as the ancient Egyptian supposed that the Ka , the soul, or one of the souls of the deceased, occupied the monument, tablet, or obelisk set up in memorial of the dead, so does the Chinese now hold that a soul, or emanation from the dead, enters into and dwells in the memorial set up, apart from the tomb, to his honour.
Now if we desire to discover what was the distinguishing motive in life of the long-headed Neolithic man, we shall find it in his respect for the dead; and he has stamped his mark everywhere where he has been by the stupendous tombs he has erected, at vast labour, out of unwrought stones. He cannot be better described than as the dolmen-builder; that is to say, the man who erected the family or tribal ossuaries that remain in such numbers wherever he has planted his foot. In China, it is true, there are no dolmens, but for this there is a reason.
Before the descendants of the Hundred Families who entered the Celestial Empire [Pg 36] had reached and obtained possession of mountains whence stone could be quarried, many centuries elapsed, and forced the Chinese to make shift with other material than stone, and so formed their habit of entombment without stone; but the frame of mind which, in a rocky land, would have prompted them to set up dolmens remained unchanged, and so remains to the present day. The exploration of dolmens in Europe reveals that they were family or tribal burial-places, and were used for a long continuance of time.
The dead to be laid in them were occasionally brought from a distance, as the bones show indication of having been cleaned of the flesh with flint scrapers, and to have been rearranged in an irregular and unscientific manner, a left leg being sometimes applied to a right thigh; or it may be that on the anniversary of an interment the bones of the deceased were taken out, scraped and cleaned, and then replaced.
In Algeria, and on the edge of the Sahara, are found great trilithons, that is to say, two huge upright stones, with one laid across at the top, forming doorways leading to nothing, but similar to those which are found at Stonehenge. We turn to the Chinese for an explanation, and find that to this day they erect triumphal gates—not now of stone, but of wood—in memory of and in honour of such widows as commit suicide so as to join their dear departed husbands in the world of spirits. On the other hand, our widows forget us and remarry.
The dolmen-builders were people with flocks and herds, and who cultivated grain and spun yarn. Their characteristic implement is the so-called celt, in reality an axe, sometimes perforated for the reception of a handle, most commonly not. The perforation belongs to the latest stage of Neolithic civilisation. Their weapons, or tools, were first ground. In about a score of places in France polishing rocks exist, marked with the furrows made by the axe when worked to and fro upon them, and others that are smaller have been removed to museums.
At Stoney-Kirk, in Wigtownshire, a grinding-stone of red sandstone, considerably hollowed by use, was found with a small, unfinished axe of Silurian schist lying upon it. In the recent [Pg 38] exploration of hut circles at Legis Tor a grindstone was found in one of the habitations, and on it an incomplete tool that was abandoned there before it was finished.
After grinding, these implements underwent laborious polishing by friction with the hand or with leather. At the same time that these artificially smoothed tools were fabricated, flint was used, beautifully chipped and flaked, to form arrow and spear heads and swords. The arrow-heads are either leaf-shaped or tanged. The pottery of the dolmen-builders is very rude. It is made of clay mingled with coarse fragments of stone or shell, is very thick and badly tempered; it is hand-made, and seems hardly capable of enduring exposure to a brisk fire.
The vessels have usually broad mouths, with an overhanging rim like a turned-back glove-cuff, and below this the vessel rapidly slopes away. The ornamentation is constant everywhere. It consisted of zigzags, chevrons, depressions made by twisted cord, and finger-nail marks in rings round the bowls or rims. It was not till late in the Bronze Age that circles and spirals were adopted.
Whilst the long-headed dolmen-builder crept along the coast of Europe, there was growing up among the mountains and lakes of Central Europe a hardy round-headed race—the Aryan, destined to be his master. Was it through instinct of what was to be, that the Ivernian shrank from penetrating into the heart of the Continent, and clung to the seaboard?
When the dolmen-builder arrived in Britain, to the best of our knowledge, he found no one there. The dolmen-builder has persisted in asserting himself. Though cranial modifications have taken place, the dusky skin, and the dark eyes and hair and somewhat squat build, have remained in the Western Isles, in Western Ireland, in Wales, and in Cornwall. It is still represented in Brittany. It is predominant in South-Western France, and is typical in Portugal.
After a lapse of time, of what duration we know not, a great wave of Aryans poured from the mountains of Central Europe, and, traversing Britain, occupied Ireland. This was the Gael. This people subjugated the Ivernian inhabitants, and rapidly mixed with them, imposing on them their tongue, except in South Wales, where the Silurian was found to have retained his individuality when conquered by Agricola in A. But if the Gaelic invaders subjugated the Ivernians, they were in turn conquered by them, though in a different manner. The strongly marked religious ideas of the long-headed men, and their deeply rooted habit of worship of ancestors, impressed and captured the imagination of their masters, and as the races [Pg 40] became fused, the mixed race continued to build dolmens and erect other megalithic monuments once characteristic of the long-heads, often on a larger scale than before.
Stonehenge and Avebury were erections of the Bronze Period, and late in it, and of the composite people. If we look at the physique of the two races, we find a great difference between them. The Ivernian was short in stature, with a face mild in expression, oval, without high cheek-bones, and without strongly characterised supraciliary ridges. The women were all conspicuously smaller than the men, and of markedly inferior development. The conquering race was other. The lower jaw was massive and square at the chin, the molar bones prominent, and the brows heavy.
The head was remarkably short, and the face expressed vigour, was coarse, and the aspect threatening. Moreover, the women were as fully developed as the men, so much so that where all the bones are not present it is not always easy to distinguish the sex of a skeleton of this race. What Tacitus says of the German women—that they are almost equal to the men both in strength and in size—applies also to these round-headed invaders of Britain; and, indeed, what we are assured of the Britons in the time of Boadicea, that it was solitum feminarum ductu bellare , shows us that the same masculine character belonged to the women of British origin.
Plus, baths are super dangerous! In this entertaining book, a young boy cites reasons why he does NOT need a bath. A hilarious take on kids and bath time. Sara Jean is a dutiful granddaughter, trying to escape a pre-ordained life and become a writer. They have both been abandoned by a parent. They come together over a hour community-service sentence to clean out a garage full of secrets with implications for them both. Organized around common classroom challenges, this jam-packed resource helps teachers recognize and respond to the needs of their students.
Two hundred simple activities engage and refocus students, bringing a "hit of fun" into their day. This valuable book will help get students more motivated, involved and focused on learning. Aimed at Kindergarten to Grade Two random strangers with two heartbreaking secrets. Thirty-six questions to make them fall in love. Hildy and Paul each have their own reasons for joining the university psychology study that asks the simple question: Can love be engineered? By the time they make it to the end, they've driven each other almost crazy. But have they fallen in love?
Through sharing the stories of five celebrated giraffes, this captivating book explores the world of giraffes living both in the wild and in captivity. While giraffes are an iconic part of the African landscape, some species of giraffes are endangered and facing extinction in the wild. From their leafy diets to their hidden social lives, giraffes are important creatures that must be protected.
List of fictional clergy and religious figures
In the year , India has a ratio of five boys to every girl — women are a valuable commodity. In the city state of Koyanagar, boys must compete in tests to win a wife. Sudasa and Kiran thwart each other at every turn until they realize that they may want the same thing. Join in the fun at the rink and on the ice with stories that are perfect for anytime! From the thrill of your first hockey game to scoring a golden goal, this book is packed with a dozen true stories of Canada's game. Each story is just the right length for reading aloud in five minutes — ideal for young fans and future stars!
This is a remarkably vivid account of the tragedy in which sealers were stranded during a severe snowstorm off the coast of Newfoundland. Abandoned for two nights in the open, 78 men froze to death on the pack ice. Survivor testimony, striking archival materials, weather visualizations, inventive animation and puppetry are seamlessly blended to recreate this harrowing ordeal.
Home consumers can watch this film for free on the NFB's website. To learn more visit nfb. When Sophie's boyfriend breaks up with her because she is too predictable and too boring, her best friend, Ella, comes up with a plan to help Sophie find her spontaneous side. In the 90 days before the start of university, Sophie will do amazing, new, different and sometimes scary things.
Can 90 days of different create a different life? Full of charming hand-drawn animals like a jaguar wearing a crown or a pig reading a book, this volume will engage little ones as they learn the alphabet. Includes a poster with each animal found in the book and its corresponding letter in both upper and lower case. In this extra-magical edition, follow Abby down the rabbit hole into Wonderland!
Together with Frankie, Robin and Penny, she'll encounter talking rabbits, mad hatters, bossy caterpillars and mean queens — and attend an unforgettable tea party. But if she can't solve a curious riddle in time, the girls could be stuck in Alice's story for good! This special edition contains fun bonus content! Young Abigail Price is excited about spring in her new Birchtown home.
This first picture book set in historic Birchtown, Nova Scotia, opens a window into the life of a Black Loyalist family in the early years of the historic colony. In the depths of winter, a woman wanders off in the snow. A full-blown search begins. Meanwhile, Derek is staying with his new girlfriend and her parents while his family is out of town.
When he disappears the same night, questions arise. Did he run away? Or did something happen to him? Two disappearances in one night. Someone knows the truth. You can be an absolute expert on all things soccer — from sports history to the latest gear, from stats on your favourite athletes to facts about little-known regulations! In this sequel to Apparition , Amelia is caught up in a series of paranormal mysteries that threaten to unravel everything she believes in. With the rivalry intensifying between Kip and the ghost of Matthew, Amelia's heart is more conflicted than ever.
Some scientific discoveries come about by logic and reasoning. Others happen because of blunders, fumbles and freaky circumstances — in short, by accident. Over 80 stories about the stumbles, goofs and strange twists that have resulted in amazing breakthroughs, from laughing gas to dynamite. Luc thought he knew what his passion was: football. He lives it, breathes it. So when his coach orders him to sign up for contemporary-dance classes to improve his game, Luc agrees.
He never expected to fall in love with dance. Now Luc faces a tough decision. Is he willing to give up a future in pro football to pursue a new dream? It is In the middle of the Pacific Ocean, a fishing boat overloaded with Vietnamese refugees drifts. The motor has failed; the hull is leaking; the drinking water is dwindling.
Princess Bubblegum must start her annual journey to the outer kingdoms to see her distant friends and to rejuvenate the crystals that keep their kingdoms alive. Anne, Penelope and Hiro are still recovering from their first adventure when they are plunged into another quest — to kill the dragon queen! Anne doesn't want to kill dragons or ignite a war between people and dragonkind, but to ignore the quest could have equally devastating results!
Now the friends must dodge robot attacks, survive dragon trials and navigate magical portals… or face certain disaster! Unexpectedly, a twist of fate leads to Anne being charged with an epic quest. Now Anne, Penelope and questing partner Hiro must solve perplexing riddles, travel to strange places, defeat devious foes and endure surprising plot twists. Readers will cheer on the courageous companions as they face seemingly insurmountable odds on their journey.
Miss Petitfour is an expert at baking and eating cakes. Her favourite mode of transport is by tablecloth, and she takes her 16 cats out for an airing daily; this often involves outings such as a search for marmalade or a trip to the Festooning Festival. Fetch a tablecloth and join Miss Petitfour and her feline friends for five magical adventures! From aardvark to zebra and all that's in between, little ones will love learning their alphabet with these colourful creatures. This vibrant ABC book introduces babies and toddlers to the unique variety of animals found in Africa.
An alphabet for all ages, the stunning linocut-influenced artwork brings an uncommon selection of critters to life in this lively board book. At the annual summer Africville Reunion Festival in Halifax, Nova Scotia, a young girl imagines what the vibrant community was once like — from the brightly painted houses nestled into the hillside to the pond where all the kids went rafting. Moving between science and culture, this book takes a straightforward look at questions we all have about dying. By showing the diverse ways in which we understand death, now and throughout our history, the book also shines a light on what it is to be human.
Three years ago, Skye's brother Luka died in a high-school shooting. But Luka wasn't a victim — he was a shooter. Now, Skye must return to the town she had fled and face Jesse, her childhood crush and former best friend until the massacre tore them apart. It's Newfoundland, Fourteen-year-old Bun O'Keefe has lived a shuttered, lonely life with her negligent mother, who is a hoarder.
One day, Bun's mother tells her to leave, so she does. Hitchhiking out of town, Bun learns that the world extends beyond the walls of her mother's house and discovers the joy of being part of a new family — a family of friends who care. When Akilak must travel a great distance to another camp to gather food, she thinks she will never be able to make it. Would you be surprised if you came face to face with a red-eared slider or a brown bullhead? Would you know what to do with Dalmatian toadflax?
This book identifies more than 50 species of animals and plants that have invaded British Columbia. This fascinating book includes colour photographs, and each species listed is rated with a threat meter to identify the serious invaders! Roderick Haig-Brown, a well-known conservationist and naturalist, taught children to explore and respect our forests, oceans and rivers for years.
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Each bird, from the osprey to the heron, shares lessons of its life and the natural world it inhabits. Readers will learn all about their favourite hoopsters and how they became part of basketball history. Record-breaking stats, famous quotes, history-making shots and more celebrate basketball stars since the game began in Haggis and Tank set sail on a pirate adventure. They talk like pirates, swab the deck and even search for buried treasure.
Piper and Sloane are best friends. To Sloane, Piper was fierce, pretty and powerful. Sloane felt lucky to be chosen for a sisterhood that was supposed to last forever. Now Sloane and Soup, racked with questions, must relive their painful histories with Piper. Discover how the definition of cleanliness in one part of the world may differ radically from another.
In Zimbabwe, for example, cleanliness means coating your washed body with a mixture of oil and dirt! The gross factor ensures that young readers will find the book both entertaining and enlightening! College freshman Liv is more than just a fangirl: The Starveil movies are her life With the help of her best friend, Xander, steampunk cosplayer extraordinaire, Liv launches a wildly successful online campaign to bring her beloved hero back to life. A trip to DragonCon with Xander may be just what she needs now.
The truth about Kellan Turner has cost Romy everything — friends, family and community. But when a girl goes missing and Romy learns of another assault, she must make a choice. Nobody believed her the first time, and nothing has changed, but is the cost of her silence more than she can bear? River has betrayed Kazmin and regained his dark powers.
The witches are planning to take over the Empire. Facing dark magic, a perilous journey and a standoff with the witches, can Kazmin, Lusha and Tem find the star and save the Empire? In this joyful celebration of the months of the year, experience a world of colour, wonder and silliness through the eyes of a young child. July is for swimming upside down, September is for crunchy piles of leaves and December is for a kingdom all in white. Experience a whole year of play and merriment!
This title is also available in French as La ronde des mois. A slice of Alligator Pie — sized for little ones! One of the best-loved Canadian poems of all time, Dennis Lee's timeless rhyme is now paired with whimsical artwork by Sandy Nichols, winner of a nationwide competition to find the perfect illustrator for this iconic poem.
After a family friend comes into her bedroom one night, year-old Jewel — who now understands why her sister ran away — is on the run. When his girlfriend disappears, Tony Shepherd joins forces with troublemaker Charlie Wolfe to find out what happened. But Charlie's investigations aren't always legal, so when another missing girl is found dead, Tony learns that doing right sometimes means doing wrong.
Together, they must find a ruthless killer and stop him before someone else dies. Shepherd and Wolfe. They're definitely not the Hardy Boys. The town of Glory is famous for seedy businesses and suicides along the Indigo River. Marsden, desperate to escape her predestined fate, needs money and ends up skimming the bodies that appear along the Indigo.
There she meets Jude and, as they grow closer, the two unearth secrets that could allow them to move forward… or chain them to the Indigo forever. Most of all, Charlotte is exposed to new ideas, and in Ghana, this is both exciting and dangerous. When the Ghanaian government is overthrown in the middle of her freshman year, Charlotte quickly learns that politics and power are a treacherous game.
For centuries, the human brain has been a mystery. Scientists have only started to unravel its secrets, and there is still much we don't understand. Joey Cornell collected everything — anything that sparked his imagination or delighted his eye. His collection grew and grew until he realized that certain pieces just looked right together. To the delight of his family, he assembled his doodads to produce wonderful, magical creations out of once-ordinary objects. Based on the childhood of artist and sculptor Joseph Cornell.
From Just Grace and Fashion Kitty author Charise Mericle Harper comes the first volume in a funny and charming new graphic-novel trilogy for elementary-age readers about a little girl who can craft her way out of any situation. Each volume includes fun and simple instructions for do-it-yourself crafting activities. Get your paws ready for crafty time! As a girl, Amelia Earhart aspired to a future that would take her beyond the problems of her younger years as well as the restrictions imposed on her because she was female.
Celebrated for her long-distance flights, her disappearance during an around-the-world flight in remains an unsolved mystery. Each primary-source artifact offers the reader significant clues to the civilization's technologies, cultural traditions, foods and conflicts. This awesome book explores the culture and achievements of ancient Egypt through the examination of artifacts that have survived through the centuries.
Each artifact offers the reader significant clues to the civilization's technologies, cultural traditions, foods and conflicts. The ancient Mayan civilization thrived in Mesoamerica, and the Mayans are famous for their calendar, which followed the solar year. This exciting book explores the culture and achievements of the ancient Maya through the examination of artifacts that have survived through the centuries.
Fifteen-year-old Jim believes that war is a glorious adventure and he cannot wait to fight. But what Jim discovers in the trenches dispels any romantic view of the war, and his longing for adventure is replaced by the need to survive. The final tragic outcome is one he never could have imagined. He puts on his boots and his coat, pulls on his goggles and heads out for an adventure.
He splashes in puddles and gets tickled by worms. How is he going to fix his mess? She presses one button, then another, until the plane takes off. Now available as a board book, this Munsch classic was originally published as an Annikin in , and as a picture book in When Angela's father gets lost at the airport, she looks for him everywhere. Angela looks under planes, on top of planes and beside planes… then she looks inside a plane.
Luckily, she finds the button for the control tower! Can Angela bring the plane back down? To Angus, shiny objects not only look beautiful, they also crackle, buzz and go whiz-bang-POP! His unique ability is lost, however, when Angus wears his grandma's beaded necklace to school, and his classmates tease him. Saddened by their laughter, Angus stops hearing the sparkle. But a kind gesture from a friend helps to restore his sparkle. What are two things that small children love? Animals and big machines, of course. In this energetic board book, the two are combined, along with a single word, to show how the actions of seven animals mirror those of seven mighty machines.
A small elf-like creature appears on every spread, giving toddlers something else to discover. Originally published as a picture book in Highlighting the work of the Toronto Wildlife Centre TWC , this book describes how wild animals are rehabilitated after being rescued from perilous situations.
True stories demonstrate the efforts of the trained professionals who rescue, treat, rehabilitate and release orphaned, sick or injured animals. Readers learn about the wild animals that they may encounter and get tips on how to protect and support urban wildlife. In an engaging question-and-answer style, children are introduced to playful activities that they share with other animals, such as playing tag gazelles , blowing bubbles grey tree frogs and dancing honeybees.
What seems like playtime for the animals is actually the way they forage for food, build strength or care for their young. A fun and educational introduction to animal behaviour. In this newest title, youngsters learn how bowheads raise their babies, where they live, what they eat and other interesting information, like how they can eat when they don't have any teeth! Mixing fun-filled animal facts for young readers with detailed illustrations, Animals Illustrated is a charming non-fiction series focusing on Arctic animals. Children learn how muskoxen raise their young, how they protect themselves from predators, what they eat and how they forage, and the adaptations they exhibit that allow them to live in colder habitats than many other animals!
In this title, children will learn how polar bears raise their cubs, what they eat and how they hunt, where they can be found and other interesting information, like the fact that polar bears actually have transparent fur and black skin! Learn how walruses raise their young in the cold Arctic ocean, what they eat and where they can be found, along with other interesting information, like the fascinating uses for their tusks. This book was created by a variety of Coast Salish artists who have been generous in sharing their culture, art and insights on their unique relationships with the natural and supernatural world.
Stranded in the rain, the animals are all too happy to board a boat two by two. At first, the animals find ways to amuse themselves like playing leapfrog and hide-and-seek. Will the rain ever stop? This title is also available in French as L'arche des animaux. Going to the art gallery is boring for Anna — everything is old and there are so many rules — until she gets to peek inside a mysterious, secret workshop. Filled with representations of many famous and not-so-famous paintings, this picture book is a celebration of how art can capture the imagination. Then wild, brash and outspoken Anne crashes into his life.
Anne is all he thinks about, desire consuming him. Henry will do anything to be with her, but will their romance destroy them both? Marilla and Matthew Cuthbert wanted to adopt a boy to help on the farm; instead they get brash, redheaded Anne, who has always dreamed of finding a real home. Could Green Gables be it? Marilla and nosy neighbour Mrs. Lynde are not so sure Anne belongs. Anne must prove what she knows in her heart — that Green Gables is her true home. Annie and her big brother, Simon, are mostly good friends, but even friends disagree sometimes.
Now this offbeat duo return for a third warm and gently funny early chapter book featuring three short stories. Annie and Simon highlight the best parts of being siblings and are a testament to the fact that there isn't just one formula for the perfect family. Princess Misty of Beldora is captured by Lord Badlug, the ruler of Grimoire, who intends to marry her and conquer Beldora. Misty is determined not to be another damsel in distress… she is going to be the hero of this story!
None of the other foxes share Marco's curiosity. So, when a magnificent ship adorned with antlers arrives at the dock looking for a crew, Marco volunteers, hoping to find other inquisitive foxes and answers to his questions about the world. The motley crew finds adventure, peril and possibility on their journey — and Marco discovers that finding friends is more important than finding answers! This accessible title helps kids understand anxiety and offers practical ideas for coping.
Filled with information, quizzes, definitions and helpful hints, this book helps young people identify and deal with the different ways that anxiety is expressed, from phobias to panic attacks, in settings as diverse as home, the schoolyard and the mall. Strategies for kids coping with anxiety are included. When she has a fictional encounter with some very curious children, they end up collaborating on a fantastical story within a story. Here is a world where kids can become part of the story and let their imaginations run wild… and maybe they will be inspired to create stories of their own.
Jaden and Cali live in different cities, but they connect online almost every day, playing their favourite game, Cross Ups. Cali is unhappy and she keeps changing her gamer tag. What is she trying to hide? Ara loves BIG numbers. She wants to count all the stars in the sky In this STEM adventure, Ara and her sidekick droid, DeeDee, use smarts and grit to solve a BIG problem and discover an amazing algorithm of success — coding, courage, creativity and collaboration! When their dad died, Justine became caregiver for her autistic brother, who has now been accepted into a group home.
Before he moves in, the twins want to create the perfect memory. Each spread has a clue, and kids will see hints of her scattered throughout the pages. A winsome armadillo goes to Paris, accompanied by his grandfather's journals, to meet the Iron Lady. But who is she? Each spread has a clue, and readers will see hints of her scattered throughout the book. Sixteen-year-old Sloane is given an incredible opportunity — the chance for a film school scholarship.
Then she discovers a bald spot on her head and is diagnosed with an autoimmune disease that has no cure and no definitive outcome. Determined to produce her video and keep her condition secret, Sloane is forced to make the most difficult choice of her life. Politics is more than just adults governing society and making laws; politics is how we make decisions. How we get along. And it is influenced by all people — even you! Readers will come away equipped with the knowledge they need to understand current events and elections, and maybe even be empowered to civic action themselves!
But the more art she sees, the more mixed-up she gets When Finley, Olivia and Henry make some art-rageous portraits of each other, they discover the power of art! Finley makes her mark in a Fin-tastic way. During his life, Vincent van Gogh was mocked for being different. Children and adults alike called him names and laughed at him. Nobody bought his art. But he kept painting. Arto has lived his whole life in the cold North. When his family prepares to spend a year in the South, Arto is not happy. He wears his woolly clothes in the desert, pretending he never left the North.
But when Arto makes a new friend, he slowly sheds his layers and discovers that it's not so bad to adapt to your surroundings. Outdoor art, from Halloween decorations to a fish display strung up at the school, starts disappearing from all over the neighbourhood! Since Attila hated working on those fish for his community service, everyone thinks he is behind it.
Wherever Christopher Rowe goes, adventure — and murder — follows. Even a chance to meet King Charles ends in a brush with an assassin! When Christopher discovers the attacker's true target, he and his friends are ordered to Paris to investigate an ancient curse on the French throne. Now Christopher, Tom and Sally are in a race to find a hidden treasure — before someone else is murdered! Will has what it takes to become a classical violinist, so when given the chance to take part in a prestigious summer program, he seizes the opportunity.
But Will is unprepared for performing in public and he has all the symptoms of performance anxiety — sweating, shaking and heart-pounding panic. What happens when the one thing you need to achieve your dreams is something you find utterly terrifying? Maddie and Ivan have been friends forever. Should she tell someone and get help? What does betrayal look like when your best friend is in trouble? Count goldfish as they swim about the tranquil pond. Watch as sunlight moves across the water. Spot a water lily blossoming, frogs and water striders hopping through, a heron flying by.
With a simple text and rich, lifelike paintings, Werner Zimmermann has created a peaceful meditation on nature and a unique and beautiful world for all readers to enjoy. From Atlantic puffin to zooplankton, this board book includes lots of interesting Atlantic Canadian animals like the lobster, brown bat, moon jellyfish, porcupine and more! This book is your passport to a world of hidden possibilities! Audrey is a cow with poetry in her blood who yearns for adventure.
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When she discovers that she is headed for the slaughterhouse, Audrey must leave her home and friends sooner than she ever imagined. Cleverly written as an oral account, this unique illustrated tale of an animal on the run is full of heart and humour. A touching and insightful story. Covering his childhood in Arizona to first overall draft pick for the Toronto Maple Leafs, this exciting book helps readers find out how the hockey player has skated his way to stardom.
Iranian-American Daria Esfandyar is proud of her heritage. She and her friends think of themselves as the "realest" kids in school. But when Daria learns something shocking about her past, she starts on a journey of self-discovery. It seems everyone is keeping secrets. As everything in her life starts spinning out of control, can she figure out how to stay true to herself?
Twelve-year-old twins Ashley and Ryan are skiing with their parents in Wyoming when there is a ground-shaking rumble and unstable snow rushes downhill, burying them in icy whiteness. An avalanche! It will take all their knowledge and grit to survive! Stay calm. Stay smart. Real-life avalanche and wilderness survival tips are included.
Avis Dolphin is sailing to England on the Lusitania. War is raging in Europe, and German U-boats are a real threat. Avis meets a kindly professor whose story of a magical island helps her face an uncertain future. Not knowing what to do, she encounters many animals who want to help. Celebrating the revitalization of Cree dialects and traditional methods of storytelling, the book includes a pronunciation guide and the recipe for bannock.
Love shines through in the scribbled sticky notes they leave each other. Neither Matt nor Free ever imagined they would be playing American football in Paris with a team from a poverty-stricken suburb called Villeneuve. And Free just wants to play football and forget Texas. The fearsome witch of folklore needs an assistant, and brave Masha needs an adventure. Now, to earn her place, Masha must pass a series of tricky tests… Russian folklore icon Baba Yaga mentors a lonely teen in a wry graphic novel that balances gleefully between the modern and the timeless.
Caillou has finished his bath and is getting ready for bed. Young children can help Caillou by looking under the flaps to find his pajamas, his favourite book and his teddy bear, along with a few surprises! A fun and sturdy book for toddlers. This CD is a celebration of 20 years of making beautiful music for children.
Reid-Naiman has gathered the best of her songs, rhymes, tickles, knee joggles, dances and lullabies for babies and put them together on one classic CD. Lindy has been working hard cleaning and doing odd jobs around the neighbourhood to earn money for a school trip to the Arctic. When an elderly client pays her a larger amount of money than normal, Lindy keeps it to pay the early-bird rate for her trip. But then a schoolmate learns what she did and starts blackmailing her, forcing Lindy to make a hard choice.
This documentary, investigating a perceived threat in the rural Maritimes following a fatal coyote attack, could be used in a high school setting to convey how the expanding human population is encroaching on animal territory. Locals react to the attack by concluding that a new super species is infiltrating their communities: part coyote and part wolf. But is there any truth to this suspicion? From Cleopatra to Coco Chanel and Marlene Dietrich to Madonna, female style rebels have used clothes to shake things up and break the rules.
With an energetic, appealing writing style, Croll demonstrates how through the ages, women — often without other means of power — have used fashion as a tool, and how their influence continues to shape the way women present themselves today. Once there was a bad mood and a stick. The stick appeared when a tree dropped it.
Where did the bad mood come from? Who picked up the stick? And where is the bad mood off to now? You never know what is going to happen… sometimes it takes a bad mood to make everything right! Twelve-year-old Cody loves basketball, but his shaky self-confidence is undermined by a much better-off player who targets him.
The newbie seems to take an interest in Cody on the court, but his "helpful" hints are undermining Cody's performance. To play better, Cody has to come to grips with the bullying, become more self-reliant and take advantage of his skills playing the sport. Bagels are the best thing about Sundays. But their weekly tradition is disrupted when a tumble on his tuches means Zaida is housebound — and bagel-less! Will they all be hungry for bagels on Sunday?
Is there something Eli can do? The Bernsteins are heading off on a cruise without the family pets. When Bagels sneaks aboard the ship, Josh and his little sister, Becky, must keep him a secret! But then an onboard mystery begins to unfold, involving two potential spies and a mysterious woman with a secret envelope. Can Bagels help crack the case? Look out, Bagels is back! The Bernstein family vacation to Sasquatch Lake is off to a rocky start with no TV and a leaky cabin roof.
Josh keeps seeing a hairy figure lurking in the woods, and even Bagels is nervous. And are Sasquatches real? Prepared in conjunction with Canada's National Ballet School, this is an inspiring resource for boys and girls interested in ballet. So when the entire family, except Balthazar, disappears, the only Fabuloso without real magic must find them. Balthazar teams up with a long-lost lunatic uncle and the loathsome Pagan Fistula against a force so evil that even powerful magicians cower before it.
What hope does a ragtag crew of misfits have? Follow along as a fictional researcher observes and makes journal entries about their field trip through the Shunan Bamboo Forest ecosystem.
Outstanding photographs highlight the animals, plants and people that inhabit China's oldest bamboo forest. Simple graphs show facts about the forest, and the final report describes efforts being made to preserve it. Separated from his family when they are forced to flee their home in Burundi, young Deo lives alone in a refugee camp in Tanzania. Resources are scarce and gangs steal what they can. One gang leader has begun targeting Deo, who finds comfort in making a banana-leaf ball. When a coach arrives and organizes a soccer game, everything begins to change.
Pip craves adventure and the chance to right the injustice he sees all around him — just like his hero, Robin Hood. An offer to go to the Bradford Fair allows him to escape his dull life for a few days.
Can Pip and his Band of Merry Kids save the day? The massive volume of information available today makes clarity a key component of data literacy, and visual representations of data are the clearest and quickest way to share information. Using engaging activities and relevant, real-life examples, this book teaches young readers how to organize and clearly present data using bar graphs, and explains how to interpret data in this form.
Meet Barnaby, an unforgettable bunny with a few blind spots! Barnaby has an excellent memory. He remembers to brush his teeth and he always remembers when it's ice-cream night. If he one brother lets depart, Now he the other has of life bereft. There lies Regin, Who has betrayed him. He cannot guard against it. It no doubt represents Sigurd, but whether before or after slaying the dragon, it is impossible to say. An historical connection with this tale of Sigurd Fafni's Bane has been suggested by Professor Browne, which, though not strictly in place in a book of this kind, is so interesting and suggestive that it may be briefly narrated--Among the coins found when digging the foundations of the tower at Andreas Church was one, either of Aulaf Sihtric's son, surnamed the Red, who was King of Northumbria , and King of Dublin till the battle of Tara in , or of Aulaf Godfrey's son, Sihtric's brother's son, who was King of Northumbria till Now, the Sigurd of Sigurd Fafni's Bane was the great-great-grandfather of these two Aulafs, and it is, therefore, a reasonable surmise that the crosses both at Andreas and Malew are memorials to the memory of one -of them.
After Loki had enraged the gods by his many treacheries, he was chased by them, and took refuge in the waterfall of Frarangr, where he was caught by the gods in a net under the form of a salmon. After his capture he changed to his human form, and as a punishment the gods caused him to be bound to a rock with the entrails of his own son Nari. After he was bound Skadi a goddess, daughter of Thiassi and the wife of p.
The venom dropped down from it on to Loki's face. Sigyn, Loki's wife, sat beside him, and held a basin under the serpent's head to catch the venom, and when the basin was full she took it away to empty it. Meanwhile the venom dropped on Loki, who shrank from it so violently that the whole earth trembled. Of all the mythical personages mentioned in this chapter, the only one remaining in the Folk-Lore of the present day is Manannan, and even about him comparatively little is known.
He is usually called Maninagh "the Manxman," and is supposed to have been the first man in Man, which he protected by a mist. If, however, his enemies succeeded in approaching in spite of this, he threw chips into the water, which became ships. His stronghold was Peel Castle, and he was able to make one man on its battlements appear as a thousand. Thus he routed his enemies. These, together with the notion that he went about on three legs at a great pace, are all the popular ideas about Manannan which still survive.
Footnotes Cormac's Glossary. O'Donovan's edition , p. This Orree beg is supposed to have been a Scandinavian prince, prisoner on parole, with Fingal and like some modern gallants, to make love to both young ladies at the same time,--and thus they shew their resentment. He declines the bunting party, for an opportunity of intrigueing sic with one or other of the ladies. Meantime he p. Kermode has the credit of being the discoverer of the former, and Canon G.
Browne of the latter. Canon Browne, indeed, was the first to indicate the existence of this tale on any sculptured stone in the United Kingdom, he having identified it on a cross in Leeds Parish Church-yard and having pointed out its historical and archaeological significance. The northern version, however, is the older, more mythical, and more simple of the two. A bold attempt has lately been made by Dr. Vigfusson to identify Sigurd with the noble Cheruscan youth Arminius. Grana commonly Grani means the "grey steed.
In the Cleasby-Vigfusson Icelandic Dictionary it is rendered "a sayer of saws, a wise man, a sage a bard? HE following legends are of entirely different character and origin from the early myths. Those relating to the "Conversion of St. Maughold," "St. Maughold and Gilcolm," "The Legend of Myrescogh Lake," and "The Stone Cross of Ballafletcher" are pious stories invented by monks and priests for the edification of simple-minded laymen; while the legends entitled "Goddard Crovan's Stone," "Olave Goddardson and the Sword Macabuin," "Ivar and Matilda," and "Alswith the Swift" are tales which, fostered by the love of the marvellous, have sprung up about personages, some of whom are historical, centuries after the events related are supposed to have taken place.
The account of the conversion of the Manx which follows is probably semi-historical, but will serve as an introduction to the legends. The Tripartite Life of St. Patrick contains the following interesting account of the conversion of Manxmen to ChristianitySt. Patrick having by means of a miracle converted a wicked man of Ulster, called Macc Cuill, and his men, the following incident is related"Then they were silent, and said, 'Truly this man Patrick is a man of God.
Now Macc Cuill went on that day to sea, with his right hand towards Maginis, till he reached Mann, and found two wonderful men in the island before him. And it is they that preached God's Word p. Conindri and Romuil were their names. Now, when these men saw Macc Cuill in his coracle, they took him from the sea, and received him with a welcome; and he learnt the divine rule with them, until he took the bishopric after them.
This is Macc Cuill from the sea," the illustrious bishop and prelate of Arduimen. In this story of the conversion of the Manx there is probably a substratum of fact mingled with fiction. The "Traditionary Ballad" gives the following account of it Then came Patrick into the midst of them; He was a saint, and full of virtue; He banished Mannanan on the wave, And his evil servants all dispersed. And of all those that were evil, He showed no favour nor kindness, That were of the seed of the conjurors, But what he destroyed or put to death He blessed the country from end to end, And never left a beggar in it; And also cleared off all those That refused or denied to become Christians.
Thus it was that Christianity first came to Man, By St. Patrick planted in, And to establish Christ in us, And also in our children. He then blessed Saint German, And left him a bishop in it, To strengthen the faith more and more, And faithfully built chapels in it. For each four quarterlands he made a chapel For people of them to meet in prayer; He also built German Church in Peel Castle, Which remaineth there until this day. Before German had finished his work, God sent for him, and he died; As ye yourselves know that this messenger Cannot be put off by using means.
He died and his corpse was laid Where a great bank had been, hut soon was levelled; A cross of stone is set at his feet In his own church in Peel Castle. Then came Maughold, we are told, And came on shore at the Head, And built a church and yard around At the place he thought to have his dwelling. The chapels which Saint German ordered For the people to come to prayers in them, Maughold put a parcel of them into one, p. Maughold died, and he is laid In his own church at Manghold Head.
And the next Bishop that came after To the best of my knowledge was Lonnan. Connaghan then came next, And then Marown the third; There all three lie in Marown, And there for ever lie unmolested. Now we will pass by these holy men, And commit their souls to the Son of God. It profiteth them not to praise them more Until they appear before the King of Kings. Maughold referred to above is said to have been one of St.
Patrick's earliest disciples. The "Book of Armagh" gives the marvellous story of his conversion by St. Patrick, and in the other accounts of St. Patrick's life are equally marvellous tales about his episcopate. A district adjoining the Boyne was invested by a band of robbers under the command of a chief named Macaldus.
Some of these had been converted from the error of their ways by the Missionaries, and their chief was very wroth in consequence against St. Hearing that he was to pass along a road in their neighbourhood on a certain day, he and some of his band took up a position by its side, intending to murder him; but as they caught sight of him slowly approaching, and apparently sunk in profound contemplation, they found themselves deprived of all desire to injure him.
Still they would not let the opportunity pass without endeavouring to bring ridicule on him by some stratagem. So one of them lay down by the side of the woodland path as if dead, and Macaldus, as the Saint passed by, besought him to restore his dead comrade to life. Though very well inclined to offer him some insult, they could not muster resolution for the purpose, and when he had gone on a little way, Macaldus ordered the man to rise. But while this poor wretch had been feigning death, life had really deserted his body, and consternation and p.
Macaldus, foremost in wickedness, was the first to feel repentance. Following St. Patrick, and throwing himself on his knees before him, he besought him to return and intercede for his comrade's restoration, acknowledging the deception they had attempted, and his own readiness to undergo the severest penance the Saint might impose. The Apostle, retracing his steps, knelt by the dead body, and did not cease to pray till the breath of life entered it again.
All the band present vowed on the spot to embrace the faith preached by Patrick, and Macaldus besought the imposition of some most rigorous penance upon himself. Patrick conducted him to the Boyne, and taking a chain from a boat he flung it round him, secured the ends by a padlock, and threw the key into the river. He then made him get into the boat, and trust his course to Providence. Strive to maintain with God's help a spirit of true sorrow; pray without ceasing. In twenty hours it was lying by a little harbour in Man, and those who assembled wondered much at the robust form of the navigator, his dejected appearance, and the chain that bound his body.
On making enquiry for the abode of a Christian Priest, he found that the Bishop of the Island lived near. He went to his house, told him his former life and present condition, and besought instruction. This was freely given, and the man's conversion found to be sincere. Feeling a strong vocation for the clerical office, he studied unremittingly, and at last came to the eve of the day on which he was to receive holy orders. On that evening the cook, suddenly entering the room in which the Bishop and postulant were conferring, cried out, "Behold, O my master, what I have taken from the belly of a fish just brought in.
Patrick had secured his chain. It was at once applied to its proper use, and he had the happiness of being ordained next day, unencumbered by spiritual or material bonds. At the death of his kind patron and instructor, he was raised to the dignity of the Bishop of Man. The following story about St. In that Island there was a city called after him, of no small extent, the remains of whose walls may yet be seen, and in the cemetery of its church is a sarcophagus of hollow stone, out of which a spring continually exudes, nay, freely floweth, which is sweet to the palate, whole some to the taste, and healeth divers infirmities, and the deadliness of poison; for whoso drinketh thereof, either receiveth instant health or instantly dieth.
In that stone the bones of St. Machaldus are said to rest, yet nothing is found therein save the clear water only; and though many have often times endeavoured to remove the stone, and especially the king of the Norice of Norway? This well is still celebrated for its sanative properties see ch.
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Maughold, where a great deal of money had been deposited, in hopes that the veneration due to St. Maughold, added to the sanctity of the place, would secure everything within its precincts. One GilColum, a very powerful chieftain, in particular, drew the attention of Somerlid to these treasures; p. Maughold, if, for the sustenance of the army, they drove off the cattle which were feeding round the churchyard.
Somerlid objected to the proposal, and said that he would allow no violence to be offered to St. On this, GilColum earnestly petitioned that he and his followers might be allowed to examine the place, and engaged to take the guilt upon his own head. Somerlid, at last, though with some reluctance, consented, and pronounced these words: "Let the affair rest between thee and St.
Maughold--let me and my troops be innocent--we claim no share of thy sacrilegious booty. He then desired that his three sons should be ready at daybreak, to surprise the church of St. Maughold, about two miles distant. Meanwhile, news was brought to those in the church that the enemy were advancing, which terrified them to such a degree that they all left the sanctuary, and sought shelter in caves and subterraneous dens.
The other inhabitants of the district, with loud shrieks, spent the whole night in imploring the forgiveness of God, through the merits of Maughold. The weaker sex, also, with dishevelled locks, ran frantic about the walls of the church, yelling and crying with a loud voice, "Where art thou departed, Holy Maughold? Where are the wonders that, in the old time before us, thou wroughtest in this spot--hast thou abandoned us for our transgressions--wilt thou forsake thy people in such an extremity?
If not in compassion towards us, yet for thine own honour, once more send us deliverance. He snatched them from their imminent danger, and consigned their adversary to instantaneous death. GilColum had no sooner fallen asleep in his tent than St. Maughold, arrayed in a white garment, and holding a pastoral staff in his hand, appeared to the robber. He placed himself opposite to the couch, and thus addressed him"What hast thou against me, GilColum? Wherein have I, or any of my servants, offended thee, that thou shouldest thus covet what is deposited within my sanctuary?
GOBLIN TALES OF LANCASHIRE.
The impious man was confounded, and awakened his soldiers, who were sleeping in their tents. The Saint struck him again, which made the ruffian utter a shriek, so hideous, that his son, and p. The wretch's tongue clove to his mouth in such a manner that it was with much difficulty he could utter the following sentence"Maughold," said he with a groan, "was here, and thrice he struck me with his rod. Go, therefore, to the church, bring his staff, and also priests and clerks, that they may make intercession for me, if, peradventure, St.
Maughold will forgive what I devised against him. The priests and clerks and people, on hearing of the miracle, were exceedingly rejoiced indeed, and despatched some clergymen with the crosier. Coming into the presence of the afflicted wretch they found him almost breathless, wherefore one of the clerks pronounced the following imprecation"May St.
Maughold, who first laid his vengeful hand upon thee, never remove thy plagues till he has bruised thee to pieces. Thus shall others by seeing and hearing thy punishment learn to pay due respect to hallowed ground. At last, about the sixth hour of the day, he expired in great misery and dismal torture. The exit of this man struck Somerlid and his whole host with such dismay that, as soon as the tide floated their ships, they weighed anchor, and with precipitancy returned home. There was a certain person called Donald, a veteran Chieftain, and a particular favourite of Harald Olaveson.
This man, flying the persecution raised by Harald Godredson, took sanctuary with his infant child in St. Mary's Monastery, at Rushen. Thither Harald Godredson followed, and as he could not offer violence in this privileged place, he, in flattering and deceitful language, addressed the aged man to this purpose"Why dost thou thus resolve to fly from me?
I mean to do thee no harm. The veteran, relying on the solemn promise and veracity of the King, followed him out of the Monastery. Within a short space, however, his Majesty manifested his sinister intentions, and demonstrated that he paid no regard to truth, or even his oath. He ordered the old man to be apprehended, bound, and carried to an Isle in the Lake at Myrescogh where he was consigned over to the charge of a strong guard, In this distress, p.
As often as he could bend his knees, he prayed the Lord to deliver him from his chains, through the intercession of the blessed Virgin, from whose Monastery he had been so insidiously betrayed. The Divine interposition was not withheld. One day as he was sitting in his chamber, and guarded only by two sentinels, for the others were absent, suddenly the fetters dropped from his ankles, and left him at full liberty to escape. He reflected, notwithstanding, that he could elope more successfully during the night while the sentinels were a sleep, and from this consideration attempted to replace his feet in the fetters, but to his astonishment found it impossible.
Concluding, therefore, that this was wrought by the might of Heaven, he wrapped himself in his mantle, and taking to his heels, made the best of his way. One of the sentinels, a baker by trade, observing him, immediately started up and pursued. Having run a good way, eager to overtake the fugitive, he hit his shin a severe blow against a log; and thus while posting full speed he was so arrested by the power of the Lord that he could not stand. Hence the good man, by the help of Heaven, got clear, and on the third day he reached St.
Mary's Abbey at Rushen, where he put up thanksgivings to God and the most merciful Mother for the deliverance. This declaration, adds the chronicler, we have recorded from the man's own mouth. This took place in In a wild and barren field near Ballafletcher there was formerly a large Stone Cross, but in the many changes and revolutions which have happened in this Island has been broken down, and part of it lost; but there still remains the cross part.
This has several times been attempted to be removed by persons who pretended a claim to whatever was on that ground, and wanted this piece of stone; but all their endeavours have been unsuccessful. Nor could the strongest team of horses be able to remove it, though irons were placed about it for that purpose. One day a great number of people being gathered about it, contriving new methods for the taking of it away, a very venerable old man appeared among the crowd, and, seeing a boy of about six or seven years of age, he bade him to put his hand to the stone, which the child doing, it immediately turned under his touch, and under it was found a piece of paper, on which were written these words: "Fear God, obey the priesthood, and do to your neighbour as you would have him do to you.
The paper was, however, carefully preserved, and carried to the vicar, who wrote copies of it, and dispersed them over the Island. They tell you that they are of such wonderful virtue to whoever wears them that on whatever business they go they are certain of success.
They also defend from witchcraft, evil tongues, and all efforts of the devil or his agents. Down in the valley of St. Mark's, near a little purling brook, lies the famous granite boulder, weighing between twenty and thirty tons, known by the name of Goddard Crovan's stone. It was cast into this situation one day by Goddard Crovan, son of Harold the Black, of Iceland, who lived with his termagant wife in a great castle on the top of Barrule. Unable to endure the violence of her tongue, he turned her unceremoniously out of doors.
After descending the mountain some distance, imagining herself out of reach, she turned round and began again to rate him so soundly at the full pitch of her voice that, in a rage, he seized on this huge granite boulder, and hurling it with all his might killed her on the spot. This took place about the year This stone was broken up and used in building the parsonage house at St.
Mark's, and has been considered effectual as a specific for the cure of a termagant by every occupier. According to tradition, there resided in Man, in the days of Olave Goddardson, a great Norman baron, named Kitter, who was so fond of the chase that he extirpated all the bisons and elks with which the Island abounded at the time of his arrival, to the utter dismay of the people, who, dreading that he might likewise deprive them of the cattle, and even of their purrs in the mountains, had recourse to witchcraft to prevent such a disaster.
When this Nimrod of the north had destroyed all the wild animals of the chase in Man, he one day extended his havoc to the red deer of the Calf, leaving at his castle, on the brow of Barrule, only the cook, whose name was Eaoch which signifies a person who can cry aloud , to dress the provisions intended for his dinner. Eaoch happened to fall asleep at his work in the kitchen. The famous witch-wife Ada caused the p. The astonished cook immediately exerted his characteristic powers to such an extent that he alarmed the hunters in the Calf, a distance.
When about half way, the frail bark struck on a rock which, from that circumstance, has since been called Kitterland , and all on board perished. The fate of the great baron, and the destruction of his boat, caused the surviving Norwegians to believe that Eaoch the cook was in league with the witches of the Island, to extirpate the Norwegians then in Man; and on this charge he was brought to trial,: and sentenced to suffer death. The unfortunate cook heard his doom pronounced with great composure; but claimed the privilege, at that time allowed to criminals in Norway, of choosing the place and manner of passing from time to eternity.
This was readily granted by the king. Although the unflinching integrity of Olave was admired by his subjects, they sympathised deeply for the personal injury to which he exposed himself, rather than deviate from the path of rectitude. But Ada, the witch, was at hand: she ordered toads' skins, twigs of the rowan tree, and adders eggs, each to the number of nine times nine, to be placed between the king's.
All these things being properly adjusted, the great sword, Macabuin, made by Loan Maclibuin, the Dark Smith of Drontheim, was lifted with the greatest caution by one of the king's most trusty servants, and laid gently on the neck of the cook; but ere its downward course could be stayed, it severed the head from the body of Eaoch, and cut all the preventives asunder, except the last, thereby saving the king's leg from harm When the Dark Smith of Drontheim heard of the stratagem p.
It was accounted very dishonourable in those days to refuse a challenge, particularly if connected with a point of honour. Olave, in mere compliance with this rule, accepted the challenge, and set out to walk against the one-legged traveller from the Isle of Man to the smithy of Loan Maclibhuin, in Drontheim. And so equal was the match that, when within sight of the smithy, Hiallus-nan-urd, who was first, called at Loan Maclibhuin to open the door, and Olave called out to shut it.
At that instant, pushing past he of the one leg, the King entered the smithy first, to the evident discomfiture of the swarthy smith and his assistant. To show that he was not in the least fatigued, Olave lifted a large forehammer, and under pretence of assisting the smith, struck the anvil with such force that he clove it not only from top to bottom, but also the block upon which it rested. Emergaid, the daughter of Loan, seeing Olave perform such manly prowess, fell so deeply in love with him that during the time her father was replacing the block and the anvil, she found an opportunity of informing him that her father was only replacing the studdy to finish a sword he was making, and that he had decoyed him to that place for the purpose of destruction, as it had been prophesied that the sword would be tempered in Royal blood, and in revenge for the affront of the cook's death by the sword Macabuin.
This tragical event was followed by one of a more agreeable nature. Olave, conscious that had it not been for the timely intervention of Emergaid, the sword of her father would indeed have been tempered in his blood, and knowing the irreparable loss which she had sustained at his hands, made her his queen, and from her were descended all succeeding Kings of Man down to Magnus, the last of the race of Goddard Crovan, the Conqueror.
Alswith, a son of Hiallus-nan-ard, the dark smith of Drontheim, whom Olave Goddardson slew in the smithy of Loan Maclibuin, undertook to walk round all the churches in the Isle of Man in one day. Now, in these days there were a great number of churches and chapels which St. Germanus had caused to be built, and the roads were then very rough and steep over the mountains, so that it was no easy task to accomplish this. However, Alswith started off very early one fine summer's morning, and he walked and walked till he had almost accomplished his task.
As the evening was drawing on he approached the Tynwald Chapel at St. John's, and from thence pursued his way along the old road leading to the Staarvey, the road up Craig Willey's hill not having been made till long after this. It was now getting very late, and he had still to visit Kirk Michael before his task would be completed; so he pushed on faster than ever, so that when going up the hill leading over "The Driney" he fell down quite exhausted with fatigue and feeling utterly miserable at not having accomplished his undertaking.
Since then that hill has been called Ughtagh breesh my chree, "Break my heart hill. There was a young and gallant knight, named Ivar, who was enamoured of a very beautiful maiden, named Matilda. He loved her ardently, and she reciprocated his affection. From childhood they had been companions, and as they grew up in years, the firmer became they attached to each other.
Never, indeed, were two beings more indissolubly bound by the fetters of love than Ivar and Matilda. But storms will overcast the serenest sky. At this period Reginald was King of the Isle of Man; and, according to ancient custom, it was incumbent upon Ivar to present his betrothed at the Court of the Monarch, and obtain his consent, prior to becoming linked in more indissoluble fetters with her. The nuptial day had already been fixed, the feast had been prepared, and it was noised abroad that the great and noble of the Island were to be present at the celebration of the marriage.
King Reginald resided in Rushen Castle, in all the barbaric pomp which was predominant in those olden times; and thither Ivar, accompanied by Matilda, proceeded to p. Dismounting from their horses at the entrance of the keep, they were conducted to the presence of the King. Ivar doffed his jewelled cap, and made obeisance; then, leading forward Matilda, he presented her to him.
Reginald was greatly enraptured with the maiden's beauty from the first moment she had met his gaze, and swore inwardly that he would possess her for himself, and spoil the knight of his affianced bride. To carry into effect his wicked purpose, he accused Ivar of pretended crimes; and, ordering in his guards, banished him from his presence; detaining, however, the maiden. Vain would it be to depict Matilda's anguish at this barbarous treatment.
Reginald endeavoured to sooth her agitation, but it was to no purpose. He talked to her of his devoted love, but the maiden spurned his impious offers with contempt. Exasperated at her resistance, he had her confined in one of the most solitary apartments in the Castle. In the meantime, Ivar exerted himself to avenge the deep injury which he had received; but Reginald had such despotic sway, that all his endeavours proved abortive. At length he resolved to retire from the world, to assume the monastic habit, and to join the pious brotherhood of the Monastery of St.
Mary's of Rushen. The brethren received him with joy, commiserating the bereavement which he had sustained. Ivar was now devoted to acts of piety; but still he did not forget his Matilda. Sometimes he would ascend the Hill, and gaze towards the Castle, wondering if Matilda were yet alive. One day, matin prayers having been offered up, Ivar wandered as usual through the woods, thinking of his betrothed, and bowed down with sorrow. At last he reclined on the grass to rest; when, looking around, he beheld a fissure in a rock which abutted from an eminence immediately opposite.
Curiosity induced him to go near; and he discovered that it was the entrance to a subterranean passage. Onward he went, till a great door arrested his progress. After some difficulty it yielded to his endeavours, and he passed through. Suddenly a piercing shriek, which reverberated along the echoing vaults fixed him horror-struck for a moment to the place. It was repeated faintly several times. A faint glimmer of light now broke in upon his path, and he found himself in a vaulted chamber.