- Rose Tremain in conversation with Margot Waddell - Tavistock and Portman Staff Publications Online
- Rose Tremain in conversation with Margot Waddell
- On the Way Home
Many more studies followed, demonstrating the benefits of CBT in treating everything from depression to obsessive-compulsive disorder to post-traumatic stress. By , more than a million people had received free therapy as a result of the initiative Layard helped push through, working with the Oxford psychologist David Clark. After all, we experience our own inner lives, and our relationships with others, as bewilderingly complex. Arguably the entire history of both religion and literature is an attempt to grapple with what it all means; neuroscience daily reveals new subtleties in the workings of the brain.
Could therapy really be so straightforward that you could receive it not from a human but from a book, or a computer? Jonathan Shedler remembers where he was when he first realised there might be something to the psychoanalytic idea of the mind as a realm far more complex, and peculiar, than most of us imagine.
He was an undergraduate, at college in Massachusetts, when a psychology lecturer astonished him by interpreting a dream Shedler had related — about driving on bridges over lakes, and trying on hats in a shop — as an expression of the fear of pregnancy. But the lecturer knew none of this context; he was apparently just an expert interpreter of the symbolism of dreams. Yet academic psychology, the field Shedler next entered, meant having that kind of enthusiasm for the mysteries of the mind drummed out of you; researchers, he concluded, were committed to quantification and measurement, but not to the inner lives of real people.
Shedler is now that rarity, a trained therapist and researcher, who bridges both worlds. Research into cognitive approaches thus got a big head start — and it was the s before empirical studies of psychoanalytic techniques began hinting that the cognitive consensus might be flawed.
In , a study tracking approximately 1, people suffering from depression, anxiety and related conditions ruled in favour of short-term psychodynamic therapy, too. But again and again, as Shedler has argued , the starkest differences between the two emerge some time after therapy has finished.
Rose Tremain in conversation with Margot Waddell - Tavistock and Portman Staff Publications Online
Ask how people are doing as soon as their treatment ends, and CBT looks convincing. Return months or years later, though, and the benefits have often faded, while the effects of psychoanalytic therapies remain, or have even increased — suggesting that they may restructure the personality in a lasting way, rather than simply helping people manage their moods. In a provocative paper , the Atlanta-based psychologist Drew Westen and his colleagues showed how researchers — motivated by the desire for an experiment with clearly interpretable results — had often excluded up to two-thirds of potential participants, typically because they had multiple psychological problems.
But it may mean that the people who do get studied are extremely atypical. In real life, our psychological problems are intricately embedded in our personalities. The promise of mastery is seductive not just for patients but therapists, too. Early studies used small samples and pioneering therapists, enthused by the new approach; more recent studies use bigger samples, and inevitably involve therapists with a wider range of talent levels.
The past is very much taken into account. Experimenters may reach wildly different conclusions about which therapies have the best outcomes. But what should count as a successful outcome anyway? In principle, you might even end a course of psychoanalysis sadder — though wiser, more conscious of your previously unconscious responses, and living in a more engaged way — and still deem the experience a success. Its chapters consist not of experimental findings or clinical diagnoses, but of stories, many of which involve a jolt of insight as the patient suddenly gets a sense of the depths he or she contains.
And that this creates a space internally into which one can be absorbed. Or, for the child, in a game. It must be one of the precursors of reading, I suppose. I think for Winnicott it would be the definition of a good relationship if, in the relationship, you would be free to be absorbed in something else. Psychoanalysis starts from the position that there is no cure, but that we need different ways of living with ourselves and different descriptions of these so-called selves.
People change, but there really are limits. One thing you discover in psychoanalytic treatment is the limits of what you can change about yourself or your life. We are children for a very long time. I know by my own experience that it does. But I think the most interesting thing about it is its unpredictability. If you buy a fridge, there are certain things you will be guaranteed. Patients come because they are suffering from something. They want that suffering to be alleviated. Analysis should do two things that are linked together. It should be about the recovery of appetite, and the need not to know yourself… Symptoms are forms of self-knowledge.
What psychoanalysis, at its best, does is cure you of your self-knowledge. And of your wish to know yourself in that coherent, narrative way. You can only recover your appetite, and appetites, if you can allow yourself to be unknown to yourself. Everybody is dealing with how much of their own aliveness they can bear and how much they need to anesthetize themselves. We all have self-cures for strong feeling. Then the self-cure becomes a problem, in the obvious sense that the problem of the alcoholic is not alcohol but sobriety.
It reminds us of sensitivities that we might have lost at some cost. And yet those sensitivities to our inner lives become increasingly muffled by the constant influx of external stimulation brought on by the century of the self. We are at our most stupid in our self-hatred. Mann has worked intermittently on what has become The Dandy at Dusk since It will be published by Head of Zeus in October, Launched in with her partner, Brian Kirkby. Alongside her role as a designer and artist, Zowie Broach has been involved in fashion education for over a decade.
Between and , Broach was appointed designer in residence at London College of Fashion. They are the future, after all. It is my job is to make them feel empowered and confident enough to have strong, distinctive points of view. Steele combines serious scholarship and a Yale Ph. D with the rare ability to communicate with general audiences.
- Upon Earning the Right to Be and Ever Become: Psychoanalytic Inquiry: Vol 30, No 2.
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As author, curator, editor, and public intellectual, Valerie Steele has been instrumental in creating the modern field of fashion studies and in raising awareness of the cultural significance of fashion. She teaches in the Humanities department at City Lit and is featured in the Shoreditch House cinema events programme. Her interests include cinematic representations of identity, the unconscious, hysteria, neoliberal economics, mental illness and love.
Using this question as my starting point I propose to apply Lacan's thesis to the psychical operation of magical notions of time in particular, as manifest in obsessional neurosis, thereby extrapolating its implications for the wider themes of the symposium; namely the operation of mythic narratives in human subjectivity more generally, and of the abiding lure of spiritual ideas of fate and destiny.
Nonetheless, when time came for Freud to pack his belongings in , he could not leave the volumes behind, and they currently occupy a central place in his library at Maresfield Gardens. In addition, he is the Chair of the Freud Museum London, and the author of numerous publications on the history, theory and practice of psychoanalysis. I begin by rehearsing briefly the interpretative difficulties familiarly posed by Nietzsche's conception of eternal recurrence.
Rose Tremain in conversation with Margot Waddell
Is eternal recurrence a cosmological or metaphysical hypothesis? Is it a metaphorical formulation of some doctrine of Nietzsche's? Or a thought-experiment with diagnostic value? Or a fiction with ethical and therapeutic import? In order to address the further question, concerning how eternal recurrence may be related to psychoanalytic theory, I take up the suggestion, found in hermeneutical construals of Freud, that the unconscious exhibits a ''causality of fate''.
This allows us, I suggest, to join Nietzsche and Freud on a single conceptual plane without confusing their fundamentally distinct projects. His interests are in Kant, post-Kantian idealism, C19 German philosophy, aesthetics, and the philosophy of psychoanalysis.
Freud's passion for, and avid collecting of antiquities is well known, but attention has tended to focus on the objects he owned from the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean; Greece and Rome, and Ancient Egypt. His Chinese collections, begun later in life, are by contrast less well known and relatively little-discussed, even though Chinese objects were literally staring him in the face as he sat at his desk, as many now-iconic images show.
His beloved dogs were in a sense 'Chinese' too and certainly had Chinese names. He has worked as a curator at the Victoria and Albert Museum, as well as teaching art history at the universities of Chicago and Sussex, and at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.
Podcast Powered By Podbean. History, theory, and psychoanalytic perspectives on a diverse range of topics. June 24, The Hidden Persuader. June 18, In What is Sex? April 9, This book is about how we have relationships with our children, what gets in the way of a good connection and what can enhance it. February 26, Sharon Kivland: The Missed Encounter.
Martin Bladh: The Rorschach Text reading.
On the Way Home
Anouchka Grose: Narcissism, Censorship and the Unconscious. December 17, December 13, Narcissus, Oedipus and the Persistence of Memory. Why does the myth of Narcissus continue to fascinate and provoke the contemporary artistic imagination? October 22, June 15, Conference: Solitary Pleasures in art and psychoanalysis- Open discussion end of session 4. Conference: Solitary Pleasures in art and psychoanalysis- Open discussion end of session 2.
Conference: Solitary Pleasures in art and psychoanalysis- Open discussion end of session 1. Conference: Solitary Pleasures in art and psychoanalysis- Florence Schechter. Conference: Solitary Pleasures in art and psychoanalysis- Johnny Golding. Conference: Solitary Pleasures in art and psychoanalysis- David Morgan. Conference: Solitary Pleasures in art and psychoanalysis- Ivan Ward. Conference: Solitary Pleasures in art and psychoanalysis- Milja Kaunisto. May 17, April 13, January 19, Conference: Mourning and Melancholia. Jonathan Sklar Thinking on the Border - Memory and the Trauma in Society How does an individual human being return from the far reaches of certain terrible experiences?
Olivia Humphreys Oneironauts - the Dream Travellers Synopsis In the ten years since she died, my mother has made regular appearances in my dreams.
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Jessa Fairbrother Conversations with my mother Synopsis Conversations with my mother is my work on maternal loss, made during the period in which I lost my remaining parent to cancer while simultaneously experiencing miscarriage and failed fertility treatments. Ken Robinson: Who is it that can tell me who I am? December 8, Class and Psychoanalysis. Joanna Ryan in discussion with Barry Watt What does psychoanalysis have to say about the emotional landscapes of class, the hidden injuries and disavowed privileges?
December 1, Conference: Fashion and Psychoanalysis. Bella Freud Fashion designer in conversation with Amanda Harlech Creative consultant and writer : Bella Freud is a London-born fashion desiigner and film maker.