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According to the markedness theory, the word woman is considered marked against the word man as the former is also in some contexts included in the latter. Every language and, in some cases, even every dialect has its own set of such words that distribute the network of relationships around an Ego, the male or female we take as our starting point.

All such kinship categories of a culture or language constitute a terminological map, or kinship system. These terminological maps can be compared from one society to another and have been typified. What is of particular interest is that human societies draw on only a limited number of such terminological types to construct their local kinship system. Indeed, identical or near identical terminological systems are found in societies as far apart as lowland Amazonia, India, China, North America and Australia. The existence of a limited number of types of terminological systems makes some prediction possible and renders systems, and thus cultures, comparable in the domain of kinship, although this always needs to be carefully confirmed.

Morgan collected terminological systems through corresponding with people from different parts of the world, such as with A. Morgan and other early social scientists were not only interested in terminologies but also studied marriage patterns and filiation. However, their legacy is principally crystallised in their systemic analysis of kinship terminologies from different societies.

Hence, Morgan produced a first typology of these systems that has since been amended many times by various anthropologists for example Murdock , yet is still widely used today. Our particular focus is on what is called the Eskimo system, in use among English speakers, and the Dravidian system, which is predominantly used in Aboriginal Australia. I will however also rapidly mention other systems such as the Crow-Omaha, which is in use in some Australian societies, or the Sudanese system, which is not used in Australia but which can be considered as standing opposite the Australian-Dravidian system.

I refer the reader interested in systemic discussions and definitions of Dravidian and Crow-Omaha to a paper written by Trautmann and Barnes The Eskimo system is also that found among the! Kung people in Africa and is predominant in Europe. Major characteristics include its emphasis on the nuclear family and its very limited extension of range xi , meaning that the use of kinship terms is limited to genealogically very close persons and that others are grouped into large categories.

Also, in the Eskimo system there is no connection between consanguinal xii and affinal xiii terms. Another characteristic is that bifurcation xiv does not occur. The terminology shown below is thus not complete. You should note, however, that these two generations are the most important ones when distinguishing systems of terminology. With other generations, such as those of the grandparents, there are so many variations and so much overlapping that systematising these is impossible and, in fact, not relevant. We will return to some of these issues when we encounter concrete Australian examples.

The equivalences are expressed using the equal sign, while differences are expressed through the unequal sign. We will see that the equivalences in other systems are different. If we wanted to be as complete as possible, we would write the first line as follows:. At some level or other, this system is identifiable in all Australian Aboriginal kinship terminologies.

Variations and adaptations occur, but they are overlays of a general schema that is Dravidian. We shall not go into these details since those features that interest us here are generally accepted. Bifurcate merging is a straightforward procedure that distinguishes fathers, mothers, uncles and aunts but according to a different principle from that underlying the Eskimo system.

Also, this figure depicts only the generations of Ego the speaker and of his or her parents. This is the basic feature from which all others are derived in Dravidian systems. This leads us to the second line of equations in the Dravidian system:. In a Dravidian system, they will be called brothers and sisters. Thus, bifurcation simply means that the difference is created when gender changes in the generation above Ego.

More importantly, it also means that children of your MB and of your FZ are themselves brothers and sisters and that their parents are therefore married. But to fully understand this, we need first to explain a few other things. I provide some examples below.

The Natural Complexity of Patent Eligibility

You may remember that one of the particularities of the Eskimo system is that it does not contain a kinship term for a spouse whom you have not yet married. This is not the case in other systems. In a Dravidian system, since everyone is or can be addressed by a kinship term, your future spouse must also be addressable. We conclude from this that ones future spouse must be a cross-cousin since you are not permitted to marry someone you call brother or sister.

Remember that, as I have mentioned earlier and as I will show below, in Dravidian systems, kinship terms can be extended to include people who are genealogically very distant and even unrelated. Figure Bifurcate merging in a Dravidian system example of marriages. In this chapter, we are talking about a terminological context: it is the terms people use for each other that lead us to establish the particular links displayed in Figure This, however, is how people should address each other, whether they are closely related or not.

The underlying principle is that bifurcate merging is in a sense inherited over generations and generations. Let us take an example of two sisters. Figure Transmission of the bifurcate merging calculation without bifurcation. In the next generation, these sisters have boys. These brothers have children as well. Their daughters call each other sister because their fathers call each other brother. This may go on over hundreds of generations and although in time people would no longer know how they are genealogically linked, since, in Australia in particular, genealogical memory is usually quite shallow, they know how they are linked through the kinship terminology.

The character of their relationship is passed on from generation to generation. The same principle described for brothers and sisters is valid for all types of relationships and kin categories. The following figure adds some complexity to the picture by adding cross-cousins to the descendants. Rows are numbered from g1 to g4 g stands for generation. This will make for easier reference. For example, the first woman top left is in filiation 1 and in generation 1. We call her f1-g1. The last woman bottom right is f4-g4.

This is because f3-g1 is the brother of f2-g1 change of gender and the children of each become cross-cousins marked cc in the figure. This is where bifurcation takes place: lines of filiation bifurcate, or divide, because there is a change of gender. The girl f4-g3 has a girl herself f4-g4. Because f3-g3 and f4-g3 are of different gender they are siblings of opposite sex , bifurcation takes place again. One happened in generation 1, the other in generation 3. A double bifurcation cancels itself out: the cross-cousin of my cross-cousin is my sister or brother.

Again, you could go on and on: a triple bifurcation changes the relationship back into cross-cousins, a quadruple bifurcation into siblings, and so on. Nevertheless, through the transmission of the bifurcate-merging principle in this classificatory system xx , Aborigines know that they are related; they know in what type of relationship they stand to everyone else. A classificatory system with no limitation to the extension of the range of persons to whom kinship terms can be applied means that the terms are not limited to close kin but can be extended to all known persons and, theoretically, to humankind.

Reality is more complicated in some cases and more straightforward in others. Indeed, in real life, people usually have more children than in our illustration and they also have children of both genders, so that bifurcation takes place in every generation and filiation. The patterns of real genealogies considerably increase the complexities illustrated in our formal model, not forgetting that we should add marriage to our figures, a problem to which we shall return shortly.

A complete overview of the genealogical grid, including generations of genealogical memory, is not necessary for the system to work and for people to live with it. In fact, what I have called the relational triangle Dousset is sufficient for every person to know how he or she stands with regard to every other person. Let us take a look at this relational triangle, and show how Aboriginal people actually determine their relationships.

In the first example, let us suppose two women meet. The first woman is Ego you , the second is X. They need to find out their relationship to each other but because they are genealogically very distant there is no way they can trace it. What they will do therefore is find a third person both of them know their relationship to.

This third person in our example is Y, a man.

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Ego calls Y mother and this mother calls the man X cross-cousin. Ego would therefore call the man X father. Before then, some further comments are warranted on the other major kinship types recognised by kinship scholars. The Eskimo system is understood by people of Euro-American background working in Aboriginal communities; and the Dravidian system is heavily represented in Aboriginal Australia.

Since the most likely readers of this book are Aboriginal people and others interested in Aboriginal culture, the choice was obvious. However, some of the other systems are found in one form or another in Australia, so it is necessary to briefly refer to them here.

As far as I know, this system is not represented in Australia. It is however, in some respects, nearly an opposite example of the Dravidian system. Mentioning it briefly here will contribute to our understanding of the distinction between descriptive and classificatory systems or terms. Anthropologists, starting way back with one of their ancestors, Lewis Henry Morgan, make this distinction between classificatory and descriptive terminologies. Classificatory terminologies denote with a single term several categories or classes of people such as uncle in the English terminology while descriptive systems have the characteristic of naming every category of kin differently.

The term for cross-cousin in a Dravidian system is typically a classificatory term, while that for MB is a descriptive term. In fact, it is not possible to distinguish entire systems as being either descriptive or classificatory since all have some elements of description and some elements of classification. The Sudanese system though is one of the most descriptive systems, if not a totally descriptive one.

Every single kin category is named using a distinct term. As we shall see, it is present in Australia in certain contexts. However, it is predominantly used among Polynesian societies of the Pacific. Thus, all people of ones own generation who are children of people one calls mother or father are brothers and sisters.

It is important to note that Hawaiian systems can be further subdivided into two sub-system types. Because in a Hawaiian system Ego only finds brothers and sisters among persons of his own generation and because he or she is supposed to marry someone from this generation, possible spouses for Ego need to be distinguished other than by terminology alone. There are two solutions. The first is to limit the use of terminology to very close kin and to apply a strict rule of exogamy the necessity to marry out into genealogically or spatially distant families.

This solution limits the extension of range of the kinship terminology. The other solution, when the terminology is used even among genealogically distant kin, is to somehow differentiate the categories of cross-cousins and of siblings as in a Dravidian system, even though before marriage they are all designated using the sibling terminology. In the latter solution, the terminology is of the Hawaiian type but the underlying system and the marriage rules follow the Dravidian type where cross-cousins are potentially also spouses.

The Hawaiian terminology should not be seen as an independent system but as an overlay of a system that is fundamentally Dravidian. This is the case in the Western Desert of Australia where in some situations people use a Hawaiian type of classification while in others they use a Dravidian type. The distinction between pre-marriage terminology and post-marriage terminology is relevant here. I shall return to this point when discussing Western Desert systems. However, in Australia at least, in most cases they are more likely to be interpreted as variations of the Dravidian system Godelier ; Needham As Kronenfeld , shows for the Fanti people of Africa and Rumsey for the Ngarinyin of north-west Australia, Crow and Omaha features are particular terminologies used in particular contexts.

Refer to Figure 2 to locate these groups on a map. In other words, two persons of two different generations are skewed into one and the same kin category. Figure Examples of possible Ohama and Crow skewing. The persons marked in yellow in each figure are called or referred to by Ego using the same word. Marriage still occurs with a cross-cousin, as in a Dravidian system. However, since one of the cross-cousins is skewed, they disappear as a potential partner. In other words, in Crow systems with patrilateral skewing, the potential spouse must be matrilateral; in the Omaha system with matrilateral skewing, the potential spouse must be patrilateral.

This marriage pattern is called asymmetrical cross-cousin marriage, which is one of the features of Crow-Omaha systems. As we will see below when discussing marriage, these systems are also called semi-complex or indirect exchange systems. A terminology is the collection of words used to address or refer to persons considered to be kin.

Each term typically refers to a specific type or category of kin. Anthropologists distinguish between terms of address xxii and terms of reference xxiii. Father is a term of reference, dad a term of address. It is only in particular contexts that one addresses ones father as father ; generally, ones father is addressed as dad , but referred to as father.

Many kinship terms are address and reference terms at the same time, such as the English cousin or uncle. This is the case in the Australian Western Desert where most terms are both terms of address and reference. A self-reciprocal term is a term applied by both persons, the one who is being addressed and the one who does the addressing; for example, the word cousin , which does not distinguish gender, age, or type of cousin.

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  7. The English brother is another such selfreciprocal term, but only in the case of two men so related who are talking to each other. The word does not, for example, distinguish if one brother is older than the other. When the use of kinship terms is limited to very few people, that is when the kinship terminology is not extended to distant or unrelated people, as in the Eskimo system and European languages, or when every possible kin category has its own specific term, such as in the Sudanese system, the terminology is called descriptive. Every word describes one very specific relationship and one person only: a mother can only be the person who gave birth to you.

    The word mother therefore defines a relationship as well as a specific person. Terminology and genealogy are here identical. Mother is therefore, in the Eskimo system, considered a descriptive term of reference. Mum is a descriptive term of address. These systems are classificatory or have many classificatory terms because kinship terms are not limited to close kin but can be extended to all known persons and, theoretically to humankind. Hence, mother is a classificatory term because it places a certain number of persons in the same class or category of kin. The most important distinction between descriptive and classificatory terminologies and systems is that in a descriptive system terms usually describe a person , whereas in a classificatory system terms describe a type of relationship.

    These theoretical positions, held in the 19th century by scholars such as Lewis Henry Morgan, soon became untenable. This category includes cements containing formed Ca-silicates before the final hardening step, with the Ca-silicates present in the starting mixture. It also includes cements based on calcium silicate-forming mixtures not containing lime or lime-producing ingredients e.

    In the first stage, Chatham House and CambridgeIP mapped out the relevant technology areas that contribute to emissions mitigation from cement and concrete production. On the basis of expert interviews, stakeholder engagement and desktop research, the scope of the patent analysis was narrowed to: products and processes to do with lowering or entirely replacing the Portland clinker content of cement and concrete.

    Searches were performed for title, abstract and claims across all available patent databases. The dataset then has all patent family duplicates temporarily removed to enable manual expert review and data cleaning. Name normalization is undertaken to account for assignee and inventor name variations throughout the dataset so as to standardize publication ownership.

    A semi-automated manual expert review of this family-collapsed dataset filters out any false positives collected by the broad search algorithm through combinations of title, abstract and claim keywords, classification codes and assignee filtering. Relevance for remaining documents is confirmed through random sampling. The final expert-reviewed dataset is re-supplemented with all relevant family members to create the final dataset, including all relevant patent documents. Especially in the case of CPC codes, not all historical patents have been manually assessed and so some may be missing from this dataset.

    Disaggregation of technology subcategories. Existing expert research indicated the presence of important technology subcategories within the focus search area. We therefore further disaggregated the dataset into more focused subcategories so as to analyse patterns within these as well. For each technology subsystem, sets of keywords most likely to be used by patents within the subsectors were developed e.

    Searches for these keywords were performed within title, abstract and claims, and combined with CPC and IPC classification codes to filter the dataset into category groupings. These records were then filtered and removed from that category designation. After multiple iterations of this approach, clean categories were developed, grouping related technologies together. During the category review process, further subdivisions providing greater granularity were sometimes recognized, resulting in further separations within the original planned categories.

    These limitations include the following:. The magnesium-based cement, produced without limestone, absorbed CO 2 during the concrete-curing stage, creating an overall carbon advantage over regular OPC. Despite the early promise and the financial support it was able to attract, the company failed to raise sufficient funds to continue research and production. Beyond partnerships with and investment in other firms, LafargeHolcim has looked to develop its own low-carbon cement products.

    In , what was then Lafarge started researching belite-rich clinker. The main reason is that it is still too expensive, due to the cost of raw materials, to compete with OPC.

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    Additionally, it cures its cement with CO 2 rather than water, sequestering around kg of CO 2 for every tonne of cement that goes into its concrete. The Japanese company has included ash treatment in its operations since the mids and has established at least five fly-ash-washing plants in coordination with local-government disposal facilities. PDF accessed 10 Oct. DeFord, D. Although consumption is slowing, China will continue to be the largest cement consumer globally in the short term. The cement market is maturing fast , with rapid consolidation and industrialization being promoted by the central government.

    Cement standards and supervision have been improved, leading to efficiency gains. However, China lags behind Europe on the use of alternative fuels. Chinese companies and institutions make up the majority of patent assignees in our dataset. China is one of the few markets in which belite clinkers have been used in large infrastructure projects. The impacts of climate change on China are likely to be higher than for most countries in the northern hemisphere.

    Projections suggest an increase in flooding in southern provinces and water scarcity in northern provinces, with major knock-on effects for the construction sector both in terms of what needs to be built and what can be built. European cement producers are some of the most advanced in terms of their use of alternative fuels, benefiting from advantageous regulatory support, but are behind India and China on energy efficiency. It has the highest number of zero-carbon buildings. Europe has strong agenda-setting power in the sector. The floor area in India is expected to double by Commercial buildings have been included in the Perform, Achieve and Trade programme — a market-based energy efficiency certificate trading scheme.

    Reducing corruption and enhancing transparency and competitiveness are key challenges to overcome. Across India, cities and infrastructure must already regularly contend with climate-related disasters , including floods and droughts. Inadequate investment in transport networks has left ageing roads, railways and waterways at risk of disruption.

    Plans announced in early , however, lacked detail and suggest that the federal contribution will remain too low to turn this trend around. The US lags behind other major producers in terms of energy efficiency and its clinker ratio, which was 0. Walmart, Amazon, Alphabet and Apple are becoming major construction product and service consumers. California has adopted an energy goal of net-zero emissions for all new residential construction by and all new commercial construction by The US has been at the forefront of many of the major digital disruptions and business model shifts in recent years.

    Phase i. Portland clinker. Limited fly ash and slag supplies globally in long term, but plentiful supplies in China, Japan, India, South Africa and Australia in short term. Limited availability of silica fume globally. Clays widely available. China, Brazil and India. Natural pozzolans will be important in locations with volcanic activity, particularly Greece, Italy, Indonesia and the US. Variable but can be lower with traditional SCMs. Potentially higher with pre-processing if needed for calcined clays and natural pozzolans. Generally results in decreased energy demand, but this varies by material.

    Varies depending on material. Vary depending on material and proportion of clinker replaced. Many high-blend cements have low early-strength development but can achieve superior durability later on. A wide range of applications. High-blend cements made with slag and fly ash have been used in structural and non-structural applications in many different contexts. Non-traditional SCMs are included in European standards, but are often excluded, not mentioned or allowed only with restriction in most exposure classes in European concrete standards.

    Limited by current global production of sodium silicate, needed as an activator. Waste glass could be used in place of sodium silicate as an activator.

    Lists of Dutch inventions and discoveries - Wikipedia

    Varies depending on energy input required for manufacturing the activator, e. Can match the performance of Portland cement concrete. Historically, quality has varied depending on composition, but predictable performance is now claimed. Geopolymer cements have been used in major infrastructure and multi-storey buildings in Australia. Not covered by standards. Geopolymer concrete standard being developed in Australia, but will likely take several years.

    Several organizations have recognized geopolymer concretes in their own standards. High same materials as traditional cement. Can be produced in conventional cement plants. Less water needed for hydration. Slower strength development than traditional cement, but expected to be more durable. Limited to applications where low early-strength development is less of an issue, e.

    Well suited to applications in hot climates. Meets Chinese standards for Portland cements. Variable sulphur supplies. Similar performance to Portland cement appears feasible. Concretes can show less carbonation and chloride migration resistance. Mostly used in applications in China where the additional cost can be justified. Small number of compositions covered by existing Chinese CSA standards. Other durability tests are still under way. Lower setting and hardening times mean that BYF clinker may have an advantage in precast concretes but can also be adapted for use in ready-mixed concrete applications.

    Low-carbonate clinkers with pre-hydrated calcium silicates. Roughly similar to costs for producing OPC clinker. Potential increase in electricity needed for activation grinding. Less water needed. Similar performance to traditional cement. Strength development, final strength and hydration vary in the same range as for conventional cement.

    Increased reactivity over belite-rich Portland cement clinkers. Not covered by existing standards. Variable supply of pure CO 2. Less grinding energy required. Similar performance to traditional concretes is claimed. Limited to precast applications for now. Not expected to be suitable for reinforced-concrete applications. Some on-site curing applications may be possible. Precast concretes can be sold under local technical approvals and do not necessarily require standardization at the national level. However, national standards are being sought. Plentiful but localized supply of basic magnesium silicates.

    Too early to assess, as no established manufacturing process. Too early to assess, as no established manufacturing process but could in theory require less energy to produce. Too early to assess. Very little information available on durability. AI artificial intelligence.

    BAT best available technology. BIM building information modelling. BPC belite-rich Portland clinker s. CCSC carbonatable calcium silicate clinker s. CO 2 carbon dioxide. CSA calcium sulphoaluminate clinker. GBFS granulated blast furnace slag. GGBS ground granulated blast furnace slag. GJ gigajoule s. GT gigatonnes. MJ megajoule s. MOMS magnesium oxides derived from magnesium silicates. SBT science-based target. SCM supplementary cementitious material. VAT value-added tax. Johanna joined Chatham House in Her research includes circular economy, low-carbon innovation in the built environment, chokepoints in global food trade, low-carbon development, resource use in China and energy for displaced populations.

    He has published on issues spanning low-carbon transition, green innovation, resource governance, and low-probability high-impact events. Ilian Iliev is an associate fellow at Chatham House, focused on energy and resource efficiency. He is also managing director of EcoMachines Ventures, an industrial high-tech focused Venture Capital fund actively investing in the built environment, and founder director at CambridgeIP, a specialist technology market research consultancy. He has published widely on issues in the energy and the clean technology space, innovation finance, and innovation policy.

    Harry Miller is an associate at CambridgeIP, focusing on patent search and IP data analysis within the energy and clean technology space. He has written reports for multinational corporate clients, technology start-ups, government research bodies, and charitable organizations. This report draws on 10 semi-structured interviews conducted by the authors between January and March We are very grateful for the insights of those who participated in those interviews.

    We are grateful to our editors Jake Statham and Mike Tsang for their enthusiastic and meticulous editing of the report and for all of their feedback and support throughout the process. Although efforts have been undertaken to decarbonize the cement and concrete sector, most relatively straightforward gains have already been made. The next phase of decarbonization will require more ambition and faster action than efforts to date. Figure 2: Cement production and emissions, — Innovation in the sector has tended to occur in incremental steps rather than via radical breakthroughs.

    Research has focused on established clinker-based cement technology, seeking to increase clinker substitution rather than radically alter the mix of raw materials used. Most innovations have failed to reach commercialization, with supply- and demand-side barriers having prevented any from reaching widespread application. In parallel to this, scaling up the use of alternative clinker substitutes will be important for expanding the range of options for deep decarbonization in the medium term.

    Carbon pricing and the development of new product standards have long been seen as vital for driving change in the sector and stimulating demand for lower-carbon products. Disruption in the Built Environment Key points Disruptive trends in the built environment could change the role of cement and concrete, and redefine the opportunities for innovation and decarbonization in the sector.

    The changing politics around the built environment are reshaping the expectations of publics and policymakers and affecting what is built and why. Set for disruption? Limestone Ground limestone can be blended with clinker to reduce the final clinker content of cement. Industrial sludge A semi-solid slurry produced from waste water from industrial processes. Chemical admixtures Materials and chemicals mixed into cement and concrete to alter their performance.

    Alkali-activated calcined clays Geopolymers based on calcined clays as the solid aluminosilicate. Alternative-clinker cements Belite-rich Portland cement clinkers Clinkers based on belite rather than alite, produced with the same process as OPC but with lower limestone content and lower calcination temperature. Dataset-generation methodology In the first stage, Chatham House and CambridgeIP mapped out the relevant technology areas that contribute to emissions mitigation from cement and concrete production.

    Disaggregation of technology subcategories Existing expert research indicated the presence of important technology subcategories within the focus search area. The searches were performed in English. This should capture the majority of relevant patents and patent families. However, owing to language differences, some patents are likely to have been missed and false positives may have cropped up due to mistranslations. The cement industry sees many mergers and acquisitions.

    Following an acquisition, the patent names are frequently not reassigned. Assignee names may not always capture these changes. Some relevant technologies may have been missed in the focus search area and in the technology subcategorization. Moreover, the boundaries of the technology spaces shift over time, so there may be some newer areas of innovation that were not identified.

    Some of the important disruptive technology and innovation may come from SMEs and individual innovators. Material availability China has: High short-term availability of fly ash and blast furnace slag; Large stockpiles of bauxite waste; An abundant volume of clays appropriate for calcining; but Limited availability of timber for construction. This is especially needed in western parts of the country, where resources are currently underutilized and construction is on the rise.

    Holding large-scale demonstration projects and pilots for clinker substitution using calcined clays from clay stockpiles to establish the potential of this technology, integrating stakeholders along the supply chain. Establishing technology cooperation agreements on low-carbon cement and concrete with Belt and Road participant countries and establishing targets for use of lower-carbon building materials in infrastructure projects funded as part of the Belt and Road Initiative.

    Material availability Europe has: Limited supplies of good-quality fly ash and blast furnace slag; Stockpiles of waste fly ash and blast furnace slag; and Abundant supplies of volcanic rocks and ash in parts of Greece and Italy. These should build on the Level s guidelines and indicators for office and residential buildings currently being tested. This could draw on the new innovation fund to support the deployment of breakthrough technologies as part of the EU ETS.

    Communicating long-term infrastructure plans and policies that set low-carbon and climate-resilient priorities for public procurement. Material availability India has: High fly-ash and granulated-slag availability in the short to medium term; Large deposits of bauxite waste; and A shortage of gypsum. Key priorities for India could include: Developing an industrial policy to expand indigenous innovation capacities around low-carbon construction processes and products.

    Supporting firms in promoting more industrial use of cements, in concert with growth and consolidation in the sector. Scaling up the use of fly ash and blast furnace slag, currently underutilized in many Indian states. This could be promoted through best-practice dissemination and training, better access to data on local material availability, and reductions in VAT on high-blend cements and concretes. In the longer term, preparing for the phasing out of coal by exploring the use of alternative clinker substitutes such as calcined clays.

    Developing climate-resilient infrastructure and city plans. The working group could also encourage joint scenario and investment planning exercises between cities on how to respond to long-term environmental trends. This could consist of providing training, tools and technical knowledge to procurers, in order to professionalize and enhance existing processes and to make clear and verifiable information on the environmental footprint and performance of products and services in the construction sector available so that these indicators are mainstreamed. Material availability The US has: A shortage of fly ash and blast furnace slag in the medium to long term; and An abundant supply of volcanic rocks and ash in parts of the west coast states.

    Working with universities, construction companies and digital providers to host open innovation platforms for exploring the potential for digital technologies to transform processes in the built environment; and to help build the stack of digital solutions needed to integrate real-time decision-making tools, supply chain optimization and lesson-sharing from experience with new materials and blends. These commitments could be expanded to focus on the potential for emissions savings from climate-smart procurement and construction. Supporting the trialling of volcanic rocks and ash as clinker substitutes at scale in California, capitalizing on local material availability and potential demand for lower-carbon concrete in the state.

    Limited supply of natural magnesite. Contributing authors Ilian Iliev is an associate fellow at Chatham House, focused on energy and resource efficiency. Previous Next. In the context of the 14th Five-Year Plan —25 , priorities for China could include to : Scale up clinker substitution with fly ash and blast furnace slag, and increase use of sustainable alternative fuels, through targeted regulation, investment in distribution infrastructure and best-practice dissemination.

    Hold large-scale demonstration projects and pilots for clinker substitution using calcined clays from clay stockpiles. Build on ambitious targets on energy efficiency for buildings, as set out in the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, to set targets for embodied energy and carbon for new-builds. Specifically, explore the potential to scale up the use of volcanic rocks and ash in southern Europe. In the longer term, prepare for the phasing out of coal by exploring the use of alternative clinker substitutes such as calcined clays.

    Develop climate-resilient infrastructure and city plans. This could consist of making training, tools and technical knowledge available to procurers, in order to professionalize and enhance existing processes. It would also involve making available clear and verifiable information on the environmental footprints and performance of products and services.

    Work with universities, construction companies and digital providers to host open innovation platforms for exploring the potential for digital technologies to transform processes in the built environment. Work with such organizations to help build the stack of digital assets needed to integrate real-time decision tools, supply chain optimization and lesson-sharing from experience into the development of new materials.

    Support coordination among US cities on tendering for similar infrastructure projects, so that the scale necessary for material suppliers to provide lower-carbon solutions can be achieved. Low-clinker cements.

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    Natural pozzolans. Alternative-clinker cements. Hydraulic calcium silicate clinkers. Low-clinker and mineral carbonation. Mineral carbonation. Calcium carbonate-based. Accelerated-carbonation technology. Carbon 8. Carbonate aggregates. Blue Planet. Research phase. Magnesium-based cements. Pilot phase. Cements based on carbonation of calcium silicates CCSC. Solidia Cement, Calera. Demonstration phase. Cements with reduced clinker content high-blend cements.

    Geopolymers and alkali-activated binders. Belite-rich Portland clinkers BPC. Estimated availability. Rival uses. Limestone filler. Fly ash Class F. Slag GBFS. Natural pozzolans, e. Silica fume. Rice husk. No data. Effect on demand for cement and concrete. Advanced concrete. Composite materials.

    Alternative materials. Smart and intelligent materials. Modular and prefabricated design and construction. Topology optimization. Building information modelling. Big data and analytics. Sensing and monitoring. Virtual reality, augmented reality and simulation.

    Automation and AI. Circular economy.

    Industrial design students and pros alike will appreciate Martin Esteva's form studies: Like his...

    Clinker-lowering technologies. Supplementary cementitious materials SCMs. Gypsum calcium sulphate. Calcined shale. Volcanic rocks. Fly ash. Granulated blast furnace slag GBFS. Waste glass. Any form of waste products agricultural or industrial waste. Industrial sludge. Chemical admixtures. Alternative-clinker technologies. Activated binders. Alkali-activated binders. Alkali-activated calcined clays. Belite-rich Portland cement clinkers. Carbonatable calcium silicate clinkers CCSC.

    Magnesium-based clinkers. Process stage. Dataset size. Dataset 1. Dataset 2. Dataset 3. Notice:The articles, pictures, news, opinions, videos, or information posted on this webpage excluding all intellectual properties owned by Alibaba Group in this webpage are uploaded by registered members of Alibaba. If you are suspect of any unauthorized use of your intellectual property rights on this webpage, please report it to us at the following:ali-guide service. From the light bulb, automobile and computer to vaccinations and tectonic theory, TIME reports on the most significant scientific and technological breakthroughs-in the form of ideas, inventions and Highlights inventions and inventors throughout history and discusses why people invent and the steps in the inventive process.

    Julie Momyer is a writer, researcher, and a small business owner who loves dabbling in new ideas. The following content was provided by the publisher. With encyclopaedic breadth, the Our world has been changing for hundreds of years and a lot of different inventions was invented, but can you name of them? Let's find this out with our new quiz Inventions Quiz! Inventions Quiz is