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  1. Bibliography
  2. African Ethnobotany: Poisons and Drugs: Chemistry, Pharmacology
  3. Search this blog
  4. Fungi Portraits | amswebsite

Grevillea 8 45 : Costanzo G. Su alcune specie interessanti raccolte in un parco planiziale. Seconda parte. Rivista di Micologia 3: Couto S. Laccase activity from the fungus Trametes hirsuta using a air-lift bioreacor. Letters in Applied Microbiology Cruz R. Revision of the genus Cyathus Basidiomycota from the herbaria of northeast Brazil.

Mycosphere Online - Journal of Fungal Biology 5 4 : Das N. Heavy metals biosorption by mushrooms. Natural Product Radiance 4 6 : Deepalakshmi K. Pleurotus ostreatus an oyster mushroom with nutritional and medicinal properties. Journal of Biochemical Technology 5 2 : Demirel K. Two new records of Phallales for the mycoflora of Turkey.

Turkish Journal Of Botany Some Poisonous Fungi of East Anatolia. Turkish Journal of Botany Disney R. Dong W. Tumor-inhibitory and liver-protective effects of Phellinus igniarius extracellular polysaccharides. World Journal of Microbiology Duffy T. MykoWeb www. Durall D. Effects of clearcut logging and tree species composition on the diversity and community composition of epigeous fruit bodies formed by ectomycorrhizal fungi. Canadian Journal of Botany El-Assfouri A. Bulletin de l'Institut Scientifique.

Enjalbert F. Journal of Toxicology 40 6. Falandysz J. Mercury bio-concentration by Puffballs Lycoperdon perlatum and evaluation of dietary intake risk. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 89 4 : Fodor E. Linking biodiversity to mutualistic networks - woody species and ectomycorrizal fungi. Annals of Forest Research 56 1 : Fries E. Systema mycologicum: sistens fungorum ordines, genera et species, huc usque cognitas, quas ad normam methodi naturalis determinavit. Systema Orbis Vegetabilis. Epicrisis Systematis Mycologici, seu Synopsis Hymenomycetum.

Upsaliae, e Typographia Academica: Summa vegetabilium Scandinaviae, seu Enumeratio systematica et critica plantarum quum cotyledonearum, tum nemearum inter Mare Occidentale et Album, inter Eidoram et Nordkap, hactenus lectarum, indicata simul distributione geographica. Sectio Posterior. Fujita R.

Bibliography

Anti-androgenic activities of Ganoderma lucidum. Journal of Ethnopharmacology The genus Macrolepiota Agaricaceae, Basidiomycota in China. Fungal Diversity Georgescu A. Determination of heavy metals in several species of wild mushrooms and their influence on peroxidase activity. Version 2.

African Ethnobotany: Poisons and Drugs: Chemistry, Pharmacology

Version 1. Gibbons W. The University of Alabama Press. Gierczyk B. Rare species of the genus Coprinus Pers. Acta Mycologica 46 1 : Gjelsvik R. Radioactivity levels and transfer of Cs for different mushroom species in Norway during the period Grand L. North Carolina State University: Gray S. A natural arrangement of British plants: according to their relation to each other as pointed out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown.

Baldwin, Cradock and Joy. London: Gregori A. Medicinal mushrooms native to Slovenia. Acta Biologica Slovenica. Greville R. Scottish cryptogamic flora, or coloured figures and descriptions of cryptogamic plants, belonging chiefly to the order Fungi; and intented to serve as a continuation of English Botany. Flora Edinensis or a description of plants growing near Edinburgh, arranged according to the Linnean System, with a concise introduction to the natural orders of the Class Cryptogamia, and illustrative plates.

Grove W. Wayside Notes. Midland Naturalist Groves J. Walton Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms of Canada. Ottawa: Research Branch. Agriculture Canada. Grudnicki M. Guler P. Antifungal activities of Fomitopsis pinicola Sw. African Journal of Biotechnology 8 16 : Gupta R. Microbial Technology. APH Publishing. Gurusamy R. Research Journal of Biotechnology 7 2 : Hacioglu N. Antimicrobial potential of Xylaria polymorpha Pers. African Journal of Microbiology Research 5 6 : Hackman W.

Diptera feeding as larvae on macrofungi in Finland. Annales Zoologici Fennici Hagvar S. Saproxylic beetles visiting living sporocarps of Fomitopsis pinicola and Fomitopsis fomentarius. Norwegian Journal of Entomology Hall I. Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms of the World. Timber Press. Hallen H. Amatoxins and phallotoxins in indigenous and introduced South African Amanita species.

South African Journal of Botany Lignicolous Jelly Fungi and Aphyllophorales in Iceland. Acta Botanica Islandica Hansen K. Phylogenetic diversity in the core group of Peziza inferred from ITS sequences and morphology. Mycological Research 8 : Harper E. Species of Pholiota of the Region of the Great Lakes. Wisconsin Acad. Sciences, Arts and Letters Species of Hypholoma in the region of the Great Lakes. Hatsch E. Hills A.

The genus Xerocomus: A personal view, with a key to the British species. Field Mycology 9 3 : 77— Himmelmann A. Lethal ingestion of stored Amanita phalloides mushrooms. Swiss Medical Weekly Intini M. Armillaria cepistipes and A. Bocconea 5: Irbe I. Qualitative - quantitative analysis of wood-inhabiting fungi in external wooden structure of the Latvian cultural heritage. A review of Accumulation of Lead in the Lepista nuda and Russula cyanoxantha.

Jaap O. Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins der Provinz Brandenburg Jahn H. Notes on Ganoderma carnosum Pat. Jakovlev J. Fungus gnats Diptera Sciaroidea associated with dead wood and wood growing fungi: new rearing data from Finland and Russian Karelia and general analysis of known larval microhabitats in Europe. Entomologica Fennica Jang Y. Journal of Antibiotics 60 11 : Jeong Y. Phytotherapy Research Johnsy G. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Trametes gibbosa Pers.

Journal of Pharmacy Research 4 11 : Jonsell M. Field attraction of Coleoptera to odours of the wood-decaying polypores Fomitopsis pinicola and Fomes fomentarius. Insects in polypore fungi as indicator species: a comparison between forest sites differing in amounts and continuity of dead wood. Forest Ecology and Management Jonsson B. Silva Fennica 39 2 : Jordan P. New Holland Publishers. Junghuhn F. Nova Genera et Species Plantarum.

Florae javanicae. Tijdschrift voor natuurlijke geschiedenis en physiologie, Vol. Justo A. Species recognition in Pluteus and Volvopluteus Pluteaceae, Agaricales : morphology, geography and phylogeny. Mycological Progress 10 4 : — A review of trace element concentrations in edible mushrooms.

Kalamees K. Checklist of the species of the genus Tricholomopsis Agaricales, Agaricomycetes in Estonia. Folia Cryptogamica Estonica Kamiyama M.

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International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences 2 2 : Kamra A. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Ganoderma lucidum extracts against human pathogenic bacteria. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 4 2 : Kao C. Anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma lucidum: active ingredients and pathways. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 3 2 : Karadelev M.

Checklist of humano-toxic macromycetes in the Republic of Macedonia. Skopje 6: The Family Boletaceae s. Excluding Boletus in the Republic of Macedonia. Karaman M. Biological activities of the lignicolous fungus Meripilus giganteus Pers. Archives of Biological Science, Belgrade 61 4 : Karsten P.

Meddelanden af Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Kaya A. Macrofungi of Huzurlu high plateau Gaziantep-Turkey. Kaygusuz O. Mushroom poisoning of death cap Amanita phalloides from Denizli Turkey. Biological Diversity and Conservation 6 2 : Kellerman W. Journal of Mycology vol. Press of F. Heer, Columbus, Ohio. Kibby G. Key to blackening species of Russula of section Compactae. Field Mycology 2 3 : Leccinum revisited: A new synoptic key to species. Field Mycology 7 4 : Kickx J. Kirschbaum C. Wiesbaden: Kirschner R.

The synnematous anamorph of Exidia saccharina Auriculariales, Basidiomycota : morphology, conidiogenesis and association with bark beetles. Polish Botanical Journal 55 2 : Komonen A. Insects associated with fruit bodies of the wood-decaying fungus Oak mazegill Daedalea quercina in mixed oak forests in southern Sweden. Entomologisk Tidskrift 4 : Forest fragmentation truncates a food chain based on an old-growth forest bracket fungus. Oikos Kosanic M. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of mushrooms. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 19 5 : Koukol O.

Taxonomic evaluation of the polypore Daedaleopsis tricolor based on morphology and molecular data. Czech Mycology 66 2 : Kramer R. Volatile sesquiterpenes from fungi: what are they good for? Phytochenistry Reviews Kreisel H. On the taxonomy on Stropharia aeruginosa sensu lato. Krishna G. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 2 3 : Calve'schen Buchhandlung, Prague: Kuka M. Bioactive compounds in latvian edible mushroom Boletus edulis. Kula E.


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Insect fauna of selected polypore fungi on birch stems in northern Bohemia. Miscellania Zoologica Kumar M. Conocybe apala Fr. Arnolds, Helvella solitaria P. Kumar R. Six unrecorded species of Russula Russulales from Nagaland, India and their nutrient composition. Nusantara Bioscience 6 1 : Kummer P. Zerbst: Verlag von E. Luppe's Buchhandlung: The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program.

Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the species reviewed belonging to 21 families and 56 genera , most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor mushrooms is naturally rich in selenium; their occurrence data are reviewed, along with information on their suitability as a dietary source of selenium for humans, the impact of cooking and possible leaching out, the significance of traditional mushroom dishes, and the element's absorption rates and co-occurrence with some potentially problematic elements.

Several other representatives of the genus Albatrellus are also abundant in selenium. Some species of the genus Boletus, such as B. The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom , and A. Defining the phylogenetic position of Amanita species from Andean Colombia. Amanita is a worldwide-distributed fungal genus, with approximately known species. Most species within the genus are ectomycorrhizal ECM , with some saprotrophic representatives.

In this study, we constructed the first comprehensive phylogeny including ECM species from Colombia collected in native Quercus humboldtii forests and in introduced Pinus patula plantations. We included 8 species A. Several highly supported clades were obtained from the phylogenetic hypotheses obtained by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood approaches, allowing us to position the Colombian collections in a coherent infrageneric level and to contribute to the knowledge of local Amanita diversity.

The group of hallucinogenic mushrooms species of the genera Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Pluteus, Psilocybe, and Stropharia is psilocybin-containing mushrooms. These "magic", psychoactive fungi have the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin. Toxicity of these mushrooms is substantial because of the popularity of hallucinogens. Psilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin are similar to lysergic acid diethylamide. These hallucinogens affect the central nervous system rapidly within 0. In this review article there are discussed about history of use of hallucinogenic mushrooms and epidemiology; pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, somatic effects and pharmacokinetics of psilocybin, the clinical effects of psilocybin and psilocin, signs and symptoms of ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms , treatment and prognosis.

Background We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index CSI. Methods Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI.

Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index. These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional.

The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan. The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. Conclusions A. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources.

This list of mushrooms can be used in. We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index CSI. Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. This list of mushrooms can be used in conservation proposals for the Quercus.

Transposable elements TEs are ubiquitous inhabitants of eukaryotic genomes and their proliferation and dispersal shape genome architectures and diversity. Nevertheless, TE dynamics are often explored for one species at a time and are rarely considered in ecological contexts.

Recent work with plant pathogens suggests a link between symbiosis and TE abundance. The genomes of pathogenic fungi appear to house an increased abundance of TEs, and TEs are frequently associated with the genes involved in symbiosis. We used methods developed to interrogate both assembled and unassembled sequences, and characterized and quantified TEs across three AS and three ECM species, including the AS outgroup Volvariella volvacea.

The ECM genomes are characterized by abundant numbers of TEs, an especially prominent feature of unassembled sequencing libraries. Increased TE activity in ECM species is also supported by phylogenetic analysis of the three most abundant TE superfamilies; phylogenies revealed many radiations within contemporary ECM species. However, the AS species Amanita thiersii also houses extensive amplifications of elements, highlighting the influence of additional evolutionary parameters on TE abundance. The Gondwanan connection - Southern temperate Amanita lineages and the description of the first sequestrate species from the Americas.

Amanita is a diverse and cosmopolitan genus of ectomycorrhizal fungi. We describe Amanita nouhrae sp. This constitutes the first report of a sequestrate Amanita from the Americas. Thick-walled basidiospores ornamented on the interior spore wall 'crassospores' were observed consistently in A.

This date suggests a broadly distributed ancestor in the Southern Hemisphere, which probably diversified as a result of continental drift, as well as the initiation of the Antarctic glaciation. By comparison, we show that this clade follows an exceptional biogeographic pattern within a genus otherwise seemingly dominated by Northern Hemisphere dispersal. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Co-ingestion of amatoxins and isoxazoles-containing mushrooms and successful treatment: A case report.

Mushroom poisonings occur when ingestion of wild mushrooms containing toxins takes place, placing the consumers at life-threatening risk. In the present case report, an unusual multiple poisoning with isoxazoles- and amatoxins-containing mushrooms in a context of altered mental state and poorly controlled hypertension is presented. The first observations revealed altered mental state and elevated blood pressure.

The examination of cooked mushroom fragments allowed a preliminary identification of Amanita pantherina. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS showed the presence of muscimol in urine. After 4 days of supportive treatment, activated charcoal, silybin and N-acetylcysteine, the patient recovered being discharged 10 days post-ingestion with no organ complications. The prompt and appropriate therapy protocol for life-threatening amatoxins toxicity probably saved the patient's life as oral absorption was decreased and also supportive care was immediately started.

The oldest fossil mushroom. A new fossil mushroom is described and illustrated from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeast Brazil. Gondwanagaricites magnificus gen. Gondwanagaricites represents the oldest fossil mushroom to date and the first fossil mushroom from Gondwana. Miller, Andrew N. Leland; Thomas, M. Jared; Ruffatto, Danielle M. Increased C3 productivity in Midwestern lawns since revealed by carbon isotopes in Amanita thiersii.

How climate and rising carbon dioxide concentrations pCO2 have influenced competition between C3 and C4 plants over the last 50 years is a critical uncertainty in climate change research. Between and , pCO2 rose by 46 ppm and the relative contribution of C3 photosynthesis to Amanita thiersii carbon increased Study of three interesting Amanita species from Thailand: Morphology, multiple-gene phylogeny and toxin analysis. Thongbai, Benjarong; Miller, Steven L. Amanita ballerina and A. Amanita fuligineoides is also reported for the first time from Thailand, increasing the known distribution of this taxon.

Together, those findings support our view that many taxa are yet to be discovered in the region. While both morphological characters and a multiple-gene phylogeny clearly place A. Phalloideae Fr. On the one hand, the morphology of A. On the other hand, in a multiple-gene phylogeny including taxa of all sections in subg. Lepidella, A. Together, the A. We therefore screened for two of the most notorious toxins by HPLC-MS analysis of methanolic extracts from the basidiomata.

Together with unique morphological characteristics, the position in the phylogeny indicates that A. Phalloideae species, or a member of a new section also including A. Metal concentrations of wild edible mushrooms from Turkey. The intake of heavy metals Pb, Cd and other metals Fe, Cu, Zn by consumption of 30 g dry weight of mushrooms daily poses no risk at all except in A.

Among the two primers, 5'-6FAM-SpC3-DHB CGA 5 provided more reliable data for identification purposes, by grouping samples of the same species and clustering closely related species together in a dendrogram based on amplicon similarities. A high degree of intra-specific variation between the 15 A. Functional foods from mushroom. Mushrooms constitute 22, known species Geographically structured host specificity is caused by the range expansions and host shifts of a symbiotic fungus.

The inability to associate with local species may constrain the spread of mutualists arriving to new habitats, but the fates of introduced, microbial mutualists are largely unknown. The deadly poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides the death cap is native to Europe and introduced to the East and West Coasts of North America. By cataloging host associations across the two continents, we record dramatic changes in specificity among the three ranges.

On the East Coast, where the fungus is restricted in its distribution, it associates almost exclusively with pines, which are rarely hosts of A. In California, where the fungus is widespread and locally abundant, it associates almost exclusively with oaks, mirroring the host associations observed in Europe. The most common host of the death cap in California is the endemic coast live oak Quercus agrifolia , and the current distribution of A.

In California, host shifts to native plants are also associated with a near doubling in the resources allocated to sexual reproduction and a prolonged fruiting period; mushrooms are twice as large as they are elsewhere and mushrooms are found throughout the year. Host and niche shifts are likely to shape the continuing range expansion of A. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case.

Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources.

Methods In we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s. Pleurotus sp. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index.

Cortinarius secc. Malacii sp. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms : species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided the cultural significance into.

Evidence for strong inter- and intracontinental phylogeographic structure in Amanita muscaria, a wind-dispersed ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete. Agrowing number of molecular studies show that many fungi have phylogeographic structures and that their distinct lineages are usually limited to different continents.

As a conservative test of the extent to which wind-dispersed mycorrhizal fungi may exhibit phylogeographic structure, we chose to study Amanita muscaria, a host-generalist, Amanita caesarea, an edible mushroom found mainly in Asia and southern Europe, has been reported to show good antioxidative activities. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of A.

Compared with HT22 exposed only to l-Glu cells, AC enhanced the phosphorylation activities of protein kinase B Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR , and suppressed the phosphorylation activities of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten PTEN. Taken together, our data provide experimental evidence that A.

Background: Poisoning by different kinds of toxic mushrooms is unfortunately becoming an increasingly important medical problem, evident from the growing number of reports worldwide since the s. Mycetism being a health concern, deserves scientific attention. In this perspective, the present study aims to assess the potential effects of ingesting the selected wild mushrooms from regions of the Western Ghats, India.

Methods: The preliminary cytotoxicity of the selected mushrooms was studied in vitro on the intestinal NCM and the Chang's liver cell lines on the basis of cell viability. Further, the hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring biologically relevant endpoints such as membrane integrity, mitochondrial stress and oxidative status. The hematological and serum analysis as well as histological examinations were carried out to evaluate their in vivo toxicity.

GC-MS analysis of the mushrooms facilitated the identification of their volatile chemical profile. Result: The in vitro intestinal cytotoxicity exhibited by these wild mushrooms in comparison to the edible mushroom indicated their potential gastrointestinal toxicity. The pathological findings in small intestine on exposure to Chlorophyllum molybdites and Agaricus endoxanthus also validates the speculations about their intestinal toxicity.

Conclusion: The potential toxicity exhibited by these representative mushrooms from the wild warrants caution about their consumption. The present work could also have broader implications for global mycetism. Medicinal Mushrooms in Guatemala. Guatemala, located in Central America, has a long and rich history in the traditional use of edible, medicinal, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. This article describes the use of these mushrooms and presents studies on the scientific validation of native and foreign species. Mushroom Use by College Students.

Surveyed 1, college students to investigate the extent of hallucinogenic mushroom use and compared mushroom users to nonusers. Results showed that among the respondents who reported use of hallucinogenic drugs 17 percent , over 85 percent had used hallucinogenic psilocybin mushrooms and over half had used mushrooms but no other…. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin. The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms , as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed.

Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins , and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc.

The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed. Accumulation of several heavy metals and lanthanides in mushrooms Agaricales from the Chicago region. This study explored the differences in metal uptake in sporocarps of ectomycorrhizae-forming fungi relative to 1 fungal species; 2 collection location; 3 differential metal uptake and variation within single-species, single-area populations; and 4 mobile metal content of soil substrate for the fungi.

In addition, this study examined levels of some of the lanthanides in these mushrooms , as lanthanide uptake in higher fungi has not been quantified to date. Soil was also collected from the Cowles Bog plots; metals were extracted from the soil, either with local Lake Michigan water or with nitric acid. These two extractions were meant to simulate the natural soil equilibrium concentrations of soluble metals and the maximum possible effects of any fungal chelating chemicals, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was used to analyze soil extracts and nitric acid digests of whole sporocarps for the target analytes.

The metals found at elevated levels in the mushrooms included four of environmental interest Ag, Cd, Ba, and Pb and three lanthanides La, Ce, and Nd. Significant differences in uptake of metals were observed between A. With regard to location, more cadmium was found in Cowles Bog collections of A. Significant specimen-to-specimen variation occurred in all populations examined. Correlation analysis between pairs of trace elements within each sporocarp population revealed strong positive correlations between the lanthanides.

Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor , Boletus speciosus , Boletus sinicus , Boletus craspedius , Boletus griseus , Boletus ornatipes , Xerocomus , Suillus placidus , Boletinus pinetorus , Tricholoma terreum , Tricholomopsis lividipileata , Termitomyces microcarpus , and Amanita hemibapha , were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography RP-HPLC analysis.

Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid TAA contents ranged from The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms.

Furthermore, the principal component analysis PCA showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. Knowledge and use of edible mushrooms in two municipalities of the Sierra Tarahumara, Chihuahua, Mexico. The territory consists of canyons and ravines with pine, oak and pine-oak forests in the higher plateaus.

A great diversity of potentially edible mushrooms is found in forests of the Municipalities of Bocoyna and Urique. Their residents are the only consumers of wild mushrooms in the Northern Mexico; they have a long tradition of collecting and eating these during the "rainy season.

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This paper aims to record evidence of the knowledge and use of wild potentially edible mushroom species by inhabitants of towns in the Sierra Tarahumara of Chihuahua, Mexico. Using a semi-structured technique, we surveyed habitants from seven locations in Urique, Bocoyna, and the Cusarare area from to Known fungi, local nomenclature, species consumed, preparation methods, appreciation of taste, forms of preservation, criteria for differentiating toxic and edible fungi, other uses, economic aspects, and traditional teaching were recorded.

To identify the recognized species, photographic stimuli of 22 local edible species and two toxic species were used. The respondents reported preference for five species: Amanita rubescens, Agaricus campestris, Ustilago maydis, Hypomyces lactifluorum, and the Amanita caesarea complex. No apparent differences were found between ethnic groups in terms of preference, although mestizos used other species in Bocoyna Boletus edulis and B.

Some different uses of fungi are recognized by respondents, i. The studied population shows a great appreciation towards five species, mainly the A. There are no. Mushroom tyrosinase: recent prospects. Tyrosinase, also known as polyphenol oxidase, is a copper-containing enzyme, which is widely distributed in microorganisms, animals, and plants. Nowadays mushroom tyrosinase has become popular because it is readily available and useful in a number of applications. This work presents a study on the importance of tyrosinase, especially that derived from mushroom , and describes its biochemical character and inhibition and activation by the various chemicals obtained from natural and synthetic origins with its clinical and industrial importance in the recent prospects.

Toxic fungi. Much progress in the areas of identification of active components and elucidation of the toxic mechanisms for the principal poisonous mushrooms has been made in the past decade. This affords a more rational approach to therapeutic management which has consequently resulted in a decrease in the morbidity and mortality associated with these species. However, the effectiveness of a large number of adjuvants for Amanita phalloides poisoning still needs critical laboratory evaluation.

The current status of knowledge concerning the toxic potential and contituents of many mushroom species, including the gastroenteric irritants, is inadequate. The problem of geographic variation or genetic strain in the concentration of toxins of many species also requires further investigation. The recent awareness and interest in the pharmacology and toxicology of uncultivated mushrooms in North America and Great Britain should encourage continued active research.

The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms. This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis.

Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms , as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied.

Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals.

Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms , seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality. Beringian origins and cryptic speciation events in the fly agaric Amanita muscaria.

Previous phylogenetic work by others indicates three geographic clades i. However, the historical dispersal patterns of A. In our project, we collected specimens from arctic, boreal and humid temperate regions in Alaska, and generated DNA sequence data from the protein-coding beta-tubulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer ITS and large subunit LSU regions of the ribosomal DNA repeat.

Death Cap Mushroom - Amanita phalloides

Homologous sequences from additional A. We conducted phylogenetic and nested clade analyses NCA to reveal the phylogeographic history of the species complex. Although phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of the three above-mentioned clades, representatives of all three groups were found to occur sympatrically in Alaska, suggesting that they represent cryptic phylogenetic species with partially overlapping geographic distributions rather than being allopatric populations. All phylogenetic species share at least two morphological varieties with other species, suggesting ancestral polymorphism in pileus and wart colour pre-dating their speciations.

The ancestral population of A. The data suggest that these populations later evolved into species, expanded their range in North America and Eurasia. In addition to range expansions, populations of all three species remained in Beringia and adapted to the cooling climate. Are mushrooms medicinal?

Despite the longstanding use of dried mushrooms and mushroom extracts in traditional Chinese medicine, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these preparations in the treatment of human disease. Consumers should evaluate assertions made by companies about the miraculous properties of medicinal mushrooms very critically. The potential harm caused by these natural products is another important consideration.

In a more positive vein, the presence of potent toxins and neurotropic compounds in basidiomycete fruit bodies suggests that secondary metabolites with useful pharmacological properties are widespread in these fungi. Major investment in controlled experiments and objective clinical trials is necessary to develop this natural pharmacopeia.

Published by Elsevier Ltd.. Shiitake Mushroom Dermatitis: A Review. Shiitake mushroom dermatitis is a cutaneous reaction caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms. Symptoms include linear erythematous eruptions with papules, papulovesicles or plaques, and severe pruritus. It is likely caused by lentinan, a heat-inactivated beta-glucan polysaccharide. Cases were initially reported in Japan but have now been documented in other Asian countries, North America, South America, and Europe, as this mushroom is now cultivated and consumed worldwide.

Shiitake mushroom dermatitis may result from mushroom ingestion or from handling, which can result in an allergic contact dermatitis. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content The equivalent umami concentration EUC ranged from 1.

Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms.

Gender differences and regionalization of the cultural significance of wild mushrooms around La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine the cultural significance of wild mushrooms in 10 communities on the slopes of La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala. The frequency and order of mention of each mushroom species in interviews of individuals were used as indicators of the relative cultural significance of each species. A X 2 analysis was used to compare the frequency of mention of each species between males and females, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference in the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender.

Traditional names for mushroom species were documented and frequency of mention assessed through multivariate statistics. The fungi with highest frequency of mention were Amanita basii, Lyophyllum decastes, Boletus pinophilus, Gomphus floccosus and Cantharellus cibarius complex. We found significant differences in the frequency of mention of different fungi by males and females but no significant difference was found for the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender.

Principal component analysis suggested a cultural regionalization of La Malinche volcano communities based on preferences for consumption and use of traditional names. We observed two groups: one formed by communities on the eastern part of the volcano with mixed cultures and the other including communities on the western slope ethnic Nahua towns. San Isidro Buensuceso is the most distinct community, according to the criteria in this study.

Correlation between the pattern volatiles and the overall aroma of wild edible mushrooms. Volatile and semivolatile components of 11 wild edible mushrooms , Suillus bellini, Suillus luteus, Suillus granulatus, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Fistulina hepatica, and Cantharellus cibarius, were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction HS-SPME and by liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS.

Fifty volatiles and nonvolatiles components were formally identified and 13 others were tentatively identified. Using sensorial analysis, the descriptors "mushroomlike", "farm-feed", "floral", "honeylike", "hay-herb", and "nutty" were obtained. A correlation between sensory descriptors and volatiles was observed by applying multivariate analysis principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchic cluster analysis to the sensorial and chemical data. The studied edible mushrooms can be divided in three groups.

One of them is rich in C8 derivatives, such as 3-octanol, 1-octenol, transoctenol, 3-octanone, and 1-octenone; another one is rich in terpenic volatile compounds; and the last one is rich in methional. The presence and contents of these compounds give a considerable contribution to the sensory characteristics of the analyzed species. Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade.

The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid.

Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.

Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms , there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms. The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms , of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine AB , but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms.

To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species 73 samples over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms , suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms.

The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. Except for Agaricus sp. Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus Psalliota The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value.

Microscope and first mould growth in Penicillium chrysogenum notatun. Sir Alexander Fleming and Petri dish culture of Penicillium sp. Full sheet, mushrooms, TB envelope seals; issued by the National Association Against Tuberculosis, and sold each year in post offices for the benefit of that body. Not valid for postage but popular with collectors.

Species featured: Amanita muscaria, Clitocybe odora, Collybia maculata, Russula sardonia, Hygrophorus puniceus, Boletus luteus, Peziza aurantia, Boletus edulis, Russula virescens, Amanita pantherina, Pholiota mutabilis, Amanita vaginata, Cantharellus cibarius, Cortinarius orellanus, Clavaria formosa, Coprinus picaceus, Coprinus comatus, Boletus rufus, Polyporus umbellatus, Volvaria bombycina, Tricholoma sulphureum, Psalliota campestris, Russula nigricans, Pleurotus ostreatus, Lepiota helveola, Boletus satanus, Mycena as Micina galericulata, Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Pholiota caperata, Pholiota squarrosa, Helvella crispa, Pleurotus eryngii, Lactarius volemus, Stropharia aeruginosa, Lycoperdon perlatum, Collybia sp.

Laccaria amethystina inscr amethystea , Amethyst deceiver, detail of gills. Crucibulum laeve , Common bird's nest, detail of "eggs". Collective sheet, x mm, with six 55 c. Collective sheet, x mm, six 75 c. Amanita pekeoides , 75 c. Rhodocollybia laulaha , 98 c, Amanita nothofaga. Collective sheetlet, x 68, four stamps in a 4 x 1 block, one each of the four in the series listed above.

Agaricus Psalliota campestris , Field mushroom. Suillus Ixocomus granulatus , Granulated boletus. Suillus Ixocomus variegatus , Variegated boletus. Boletus aurantiacus but probably Leccinum versipelle. Russula claroflava as R. Armillaria Armillariella mellea , Honey fungus. Agaricus campestris as A. Minisheet, 95 x 80 mm. Mitrophora semilibera as M. Mongolia: Topex '93 commemoration. The unperforated stamp, 82 x 50 mm with a face value of t. Souvenir Sheet x mm. Collective sheet one of two , each x 95 mm and with six stamps featuring: a 50t. Bat; c t.

Butterfly different ; d t. Mushroom Fungi; e t.


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Dinosaur; f t. One sheet only the other does not have a fungus. Minisheets, x 70 mm, a t. Lactarius tormmosus and Aeqithalos caudatus 60 x 40 mm. Set of two sheets [ VIEW ]. Other sheets in the issue show orchids and butterflies. Psathyrella multipedata vert.

ONE of a set of four sheets, the others show birds, orchids and butterflies. Sheet, x 90 mm, of six stamps, all horiz. Collective sheet, x mm, 3 x 3 stamps of face value m. One features Amanita muscaria ; the others a butterfly, owl, woodpecker, hummingbird, fox, deer, dragonfly and squirrel.

Collective sheet, x mm, 3 x 2 stamps all m. Minisheet, 98 x mm, m, stamp features Lord Baden Powell with arms crossed, but the background sheet has images of butterlies and mushrooms boletes. Collective sheet, 97 x mm containing four stamps of m face value a Charles Darwin and Byronosaurus; b Alexander Fleming clean shaven and Tricholoma terreum ; c Alexander Fleming bearded; I don't believe it is Fleming and Boletus edulis ; d Charles Darwin and Irratator dinosaur.

Minisheet, 97 x , with one m value stamp showing Alexander Fleming bearded; I don't believe it is Fleming and Boletus edulis.